Textbook Notes (368,285)
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Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2410 (149)
Dan Meegan (42)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Principles of Behaviour Notes

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PSYC 2410
Dan Meegan

Chapter 8 Psych NotesMemoryMemory The process that allows is to record and later review experiencesinformationMEMORY AS INFORMATION PROCESSINGEncoding Refers to getting info into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processesStorage Involves retaining information over timeRetrieval Involves pulling information out of storage when neededThe 3Component Model Model suggests memory has 3 main components sensory memory shortterm working memory and long term memory Assumes the components may involve interrelated neural sites and memory researchers use these terms in a more abstract senseSensory Memory Holds incoming sensory info just long enough for it to be recognized Composed of different subsystems sensory registered which are the initial info processors Visual sensory register is called the iconic store Very difficult to retain complete info in purely visual form Auditory sensory register echoic store lasts longer than visual memory About 2several secondsShortTermWorking Memory Most info in sensory memory fades away Small portion enters shortterm memory through selective attentionWorking memory Short term is called this because it consciously processescodes and works on infoMental Representations Once info leaves sensory memory it must be represented by some code if its going to be retained in shortterm Codes can take various forms By sound phonological coding Visual or meaning semantic coding motor encodingCapacityDuration Shortterm memory can only hold limited amount of info at a time Most people can hold no more than 59 meaningful items in shortterm memoryChunking Combining individual items into larger units of meaningful unitswordsElaborative Rehearsal involves focusing on the meaning of info or relating it to other things we already knowMaintenance Rehearsal repetition of informationPutting shortterm memory to work Items that remain in shortterm memory long enough get transferred to longterm memory Some scientists view shortterm memory now as not a holding station for info butas a mental workspace in which that actively processes different types of infosupports other cognitive functionsLongTerm Memory Vast library of more durable memoriesSerial Position Effect means that recall is influenced by words position in a series of itemsHas 2 components Primary Effect reflecting the superior recall of early words Recency Effect The superior recall of most recent wordsENCODING ENTERING INFORMATIONThe holding of info in longterm memory must be organized in terms of specific codesEffortfulAutomatic Processing Effortful processing involves encoding that is initiated intentionallyrequires conscious attention Automatic processing is encoding that occurs without intentionrequires minimal attention Info about frequency special location sequencetiming or events is encoded automaticallyLevels of Processing When Deeper is Better Developed by Fergus Claik and Robert Lockhart states the more deeply we process info the better it will be remembered Semantic encoding involves deepest processing because it requires us to focus on the meaning of info
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