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PSYC 2410 (149)
Dan Meegan (42)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Principles of Behaviour Notes
Chapter 9 Principles of Behaviour Notes

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Dan Meegan

Chapter 9 Psych NotesThought LanguageIntelligenceIntelligence The ability to acquire knowledge to think and reason effectively and deal with the environmentMental Representations take a variety of forms including images ideas concepts and principlesLANGUAGEEvolutionary theorists believe that language evolved as humans gathered to form larger social unitsThe NatureStructure of LanguageLanguage system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messagesmeanings3 essential properties of language Symbolic Uses sound written signs or gestures to refer to objects events ideasfeelingsDisplacementthe fact that the past futureimaginary eventsobjects arent physically present can besymbolically representedcommunicated through language Structure w rules that govern how symbols can be combined to create meaningful communication units Generative Symbols can be combined to generate an almost infiniteof messages that can have novel meaningSurfaceDeep StructureSurface Structure consists of the way symbols are combined within a given languageThe rules of grammar Syntax Deep Structure Refers to underlying meaning of combined symbols Semantics Rules for connecting the symbols or what the represent The rules of surface structuredeep structure are stored in longterm memoryLanguage from the Bottom Up Human language has a hierarchical structurePhonemes The smallest units of sound that are recognized as separate in a given language Morphemes The smallest units of meaning in a language Morphemes are the stuff of which words are formedEg ed ous preAcquiring LanguageBiological Foundations Human children begin to master language early in life without any formal instruction At about 6 months of age they being to make the sounds of their native tonguediscard other language Some linguists are convinced that there is a sensitive period during which language is most easily learned Extends from infancy to puberty Recovery of language is rare if the damage occurs after puberty Brocas area located in the left hemispheres frontal lobe is involved in speech production Wernickes area locate din the rear portion of the temporal lobe is involved in speech comprehension Damage to either of these areas can result in aphasia a disruption of speech comprehension andor productionSocial Learning Processes BF Skinner says childrens language development is strongly governed by adults reinforcing appropriate language and nonreinforcing of inappropriate vocalization Social learning is crucial but it seems unlikely that its the sole factor in acquiring a language A biological and experimental factors combine their influences language acquisition proceeds according to developmental timetable common to all culturesTelegraphic Speech By second year of life children are uttering 2word sentences that consist of noun and verb want cookieBilingualism Learning a second languagend A 2 language is learned best and spoken most fluently when it is learning during the sensitive period of childhood Mastery of syntax or grammar depends on early acquiringLinguistic Influences on Thinking
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