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Dan Meegan (42)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Psychology 1100

10 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2410
Dan Meegan

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Chapter 3 Psych 1100 Neurons Neurons nerve cells that constitute the basic building blocks of the nervous systemEach neuron has three main parts 1 A cell body or somacontains the biochemical structures needed to keep the neuron alive and its nucleus carries the genetic information that determines how the cell develops and functions 2 Dendritescollect messages from neighboring neurons and send them on to the cell body 3 Axonconducts electrical impulses away from the cell body to other neurons muscles or gland The axon branches out at its end to form a number of axon terminalsGlial Cells surround neurons and hold them in place and manufacture nutrient chemicals that neurons need form the myelin sheath around some axons and absorb toxins and waste materials that might damage neurons y Send out long fibers that guide newly divided neurons to their targeted place in the brain y Protect the brain from toxinsBloodBrainBarrier specialized lining of cells in the brains blood vessels that screen out foreign substances while letting nutrients pass through to neuronsThe Electrical Activity of Neurons Two important functions of neurons 1 Generate electricity that creates nerve impulses 2 Release chemicals that allow them to communicate with other neurons and with muscles and glandsNerve activation involves three basic steps 1 At rest the neuron has an electrical resting potential due to the distribution of positively and negatively charged chemicals ions inside and outside the neuron 2 When stimulated a flow or ions in and out though the cell membrane reverses the electrical charge of the resting potential producing an action potential or nerve impulse 3 The original distribution of ions is restored and the neuron is again at resty The cell membrane is like a selective sieve allowing substances to pass through ion channels y Nerve impulse is created involves the exchange of electrically charged atoms called ions y Interior of the cell is more negative compared to the outside
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