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PSYC 2410 (149)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Boyer Winters

PSYC2410 Behavioural Neuroscience Week 3Chapter 3 Anatomy of the Nervous System Systems StructuresCells That Make Up Your Nervous System31 General Layout of the Nervous System Divisions of the Nervous System y Composed of 2 divisions central nervous system CNS located win the skullspine y Peripheral nervous system PNSlocated outside skullspine y brain is the part of the CNS located In the skull spinal cord outside the skullspine y PNS divided into somatic nervous system SNSPNS that interacts w the external environment composed of afferent nervescarry sensory signals from skin skeletal muscles joints eyes ears etc to the CNS and efferent nerves carry motor signals from CNS to skeletal muscles y Autonomic nervous system ANSin PNS that regulates the bodys internal environment afferent nerves carry sensory signals from internal organs to the CNSefferent nerves carry motor signals from CNS to internal organs y ANS has sympathetic nervesautonomic nerves that project from the CNS in the lumbar small part of the backthoracic chest regions of the spinal cord y Parasympathetic nerves autonomic nerves that project from the brain and sacral lower back region to the spinal cord y both have 2 stage neural paths project from CNSgo only part of the way to target organs before they synapse on other neurons called 2nd stage neurons that carry signals further ndy Sympparasymp systems differ symp neurons project the CNS synapse on 2stage neurons are farther from the target parasymp are near their targetsorgans y Most PNS nerves project from the spinal cord except for 12 pairs of exceptions y 12 pairs of cranial nerves projecting from the brain numbered in seq from front to back they include purely sensory nerves such as olfactory nerves I optic nerves II sensorymotor fibres longest are vagus nerves X which travel tofrom the gut which are all parasymp y Function usually assessed for diagnosis locations of the cranial nerves are specificdisruptions of partic nerve functions prove to be great clues about tumorsbrain pathologyMeninges VentriclesCerebrospinal Fluid y CNS protected by bone organs and covered in 3 protective membranes the meninges y Outer meninx tough membrane called the dura mater Inside that is the fine arachnoid membrane spiderlike membranebeneath that the subarachnoid space which has large blood vesselscerebrospinal fluid and under that the pia mater which adheres to the surface of the CNS y Also protecting the CNS is the cerebrospinal fluid CSF which fills the subarachnoid space central canal of spinal cordcerebral ventricles of the brain which are all connected by a series of openings forming a reservoir y CSF supportscushions the brain those w drained CSF have raging headachesstabbing pain when they turn their head y Central canal small central channel that runs the length of the spinal cord thy Cerebral ventricles 4 large internal chambers of the brain 2 lateral ventricles 3rd4 ventricle
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