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PSYC 2410 (149)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes

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PSYC 2410
Boyer Winters

CHAPTER 5The Research Methods of BiopsychologyMethods of Visualizing the Human Brain 7 Methods1 Contrast XRaysInto one compartment of the body a subject is injected with a substance that absorbs Xrays more or less than surrounding tissue Images highlight or block out the areas where the substance flowedA Cerebral Angiography is an example The cerebral circulatory system is displayed on an XRay by injecting radio opaque dye into a cerebral artery2 XRay Computed Tomography CTComputer assisted XRay Patient lies with head positioned in center of large cylinder The cylinder projects an XRay beam through the head to an XRay detector on the other side As the cylinder rotates it takes many XRay photographs which a computer combines to generate a CT scan The process repeats on different horizontal levels and combined to form a 3D image 3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRIHighresolution images are constructed from the measurement of waves that hydrogen atoms emit when activated by radiofrequency waves in a magnetic fieldProvides high spatial resolution the ability to detect and represent differences in spatial location4 Positron Emission Tomography PETIt was the first technique to provide functional brain imagesRadioactive substance is injected into carotid artery The substance similar to glucose the main metabolic fuel of the brain although it cannot be metabolized and is slow to break down This results in the accumulation of the substance in active neurons and displayed in a horizontal scan of the brain Scan indicates most active parts of the brain during the 30 seconds after injection 5 Function MRI fMRIThe most influential tool of cognitive neuroscience Active areas of the brain take up more oxygen than needed so it accumulates Oxygenated blood has magnetic properties that are recorded by the BOLD signalBOLD Bloodoxygenleveldependentrelation between BOLD signal and neural activity is complex
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