PSYC 2410 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Socalled, Domineering, Sexual Fantasy

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6 Apr 2012
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Chapter 11 Psych 1100
Motivation: a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-
directed behaviour
Instinct: an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that
automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a
particular stimulus
Modern evolutionary psychologists propose that many “psychological”
motives have evolutionary underpinnings that are expressed through the
actions of genes
Adaptive Significance of behaviour is a key to understanding motivation
good genes are passed on
Homeostasis: the maintenance of biological equilibrium, or balance, within the
body
Maintaining homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism for detecting
changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore
equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors
and activates the response system
Drive Theory: the theory that physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce
states of internal tension (called drives) that motivate an organism to behave in
ways that reduce this tension
Incentives: an environmental stimulus or condition that motivates behaviour
Clarke Halle argues that all reinforcement involves some kind of biological drive
reduction.
This view is no longer held
Modern incentive theory emphasizes the “pull” of external stimuli and how
stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even in the absence
of biological need
Have been powerfully applied to the study of drug abuse
An incentive theory of drug use argues that seeking and administering a drug
is motivated by the positive incentive value of the drug’s effect
Expectancy X Value Theory: a cognitive theory that goal-directed behaviour is
jointly influences by (1) the person’s expectancy that a particularly behaviour will
contribute to reaching the goal and (2) how positively or negatively the person
values the goal
Often called incentive value
Motivation=Expectancy X Value
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Extrinsic Motivation: motivation to perform behaviour to obtain external rewards
and reinforcers, such as money, status, attention, and praise
Intrinsic Motivation: the motivation to perform a behaviour simply because one
finds it interesting or enjoyable for its own sake
Over justification hypothesis - giving people extrinsic rewards to perform
activities that they intrinsically enjoy may “over justify” that behaviour and
reduce intrinsic motivation
If we begin to perceive that we are performing for the extrinsic rewards
rather than for enjoyment, the rewards will turn “play” into “work,” and it
might be difficult to return to “play” if those rewards are no longer available
Common for people to report that an activity is not as enjoyable once they
begin to be paid for it
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories
Freud’s psycholanalytic theory highlighted the motivational underworld
To Freud, much of our behaviour results from a never-ending battle between
unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defenses used
to keep them under control
Today’s diverse psychodynamic theories continue to emphasize that, along
with conscious mental processes, unconscious motives and tensions guide
how we act and feel
Humanist Abraham Maslow believed that psychology’s other perspectives ignored a
key motive: our striving for personal growth.
Distinguished between deficiency needs, which are concerned with physical
and social survival, and growth needs, which are uniquely human and
motivate us to develop our potential
Need Hierarchy: Maslow’s view that human needs are arranged in progression,
beginning with deficiency needs and then reaching growth needs
Self-Actualization: in humanistic theories, an inborn tendency to strive toward the
realization of one’ full potential
Self-Determination Theory: a theory about motivation that focuses on three
fundamental psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness
Competence motivation reflects a human need to master new challenges and perfect
skills.
Autonomy is satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice
without outside interference.
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Relatedness refers to our desire to from meaningful bonds with others.
Hunger and Weight Regulation
Metabolism: the rate of energy expenditure by the body
Basal Metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells.
Satiety - the state in which we no longer feel hungry as a result of eating.
These signals adjust appetite and metabolism to compensate for times when you
overeat or eat too little in the short term.
Body also monitors “long-term” signals based on how much body fat you have.
First consider these points though:
1. Hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs
2. Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent you from “running low” on
energy in the first place. In evolutionary terms, an organism that does not eat
until its energy supply starts to become low
3. There is a set point an internal physiological standard around which body
weight (or more accurately, our fat mass) is registered
Signals that Start and Terminate a Meal
When you eat, digestive enzymes break food down into various nutrients
Glucose: a simple sugar that s the body’s (and especially the brain’s) major source
of immediately usable fuel
After a meal, some glucose is transported into cells to provide energy, but a
large portion is transferred to your liver and fat cells
When blood glucose levels decrease, the liver responds by converting stored
nutrients back into glucose
As we eat, several bodily signals combine and ultimately cause us to end our
meal.
Stomach and Intestinal Distention are “satiety signals”
The walls of the stomach and intestine stretch as food fills them up, sending
nerve signals to the brain
The intestines respond to food by releasing several hormones called peptides
that help terminate a meal. One example is …
CCK (Cholecystokinin): a peptide that appears to decrease eating and therby helps
to regulate food intake
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