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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 – Psych 1100.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Dan Meegan

Chapter 11 Psych 1100 Motivation: a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal- directed behaviour Instinct: an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus Modern evolutionary psychologists propose that many psychological motives have evolutionary underpinnings that are expressed through the actions of genes Adaptive Significance of behaviour is a key to understanding motivation good genes are passed on Homeostasis: the maintenance of biological equilibrium, or balance, within the body Maintaining homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system Drive Theory: the theory that physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce states of internal tension (called drives) that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension Incentives: an environmental stimulus or condition that motivates behaviour Clarke Halle argues that all reinforcement involves some kind of biological drive reduction. This view is no longer held Modern incentive theory emphasizes the pull of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even in the absence of biological need Have been powerfully applied to the study of drug abuse An incentive theory of drug use argues that seeking and administering a drug is motivated by the positive incentive value of the drugs effect Expectancy X Value Theory: a cognitive theory that goal-directed behaviour is jointly influences by (1) the persons expectancy that a particularly behaviour will contribute to reaching the goal and (2) how positively or negatively the person values the goal Often called incentive value Motivation=Expectancy X Value Extrinsic Motivation: motivation to perform behaviour to obtain external rewards and reinforcers, such as money, status, attention, and praise Intrinsic Motivation: the motivation to perform a behaviour simply because one finds it interesting or enjoyable for its own sake Over justification hypothesis - giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may over justify that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation If we begin to perceive that we are performing for the extrinsic rewards rather than for enjoyment, the rewards will turn play into work, and it might be difficult to return to play if those rewards are no longer available Common for people to report that an activity is not as enjoyable once they begin to be paid for it Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories Freuds psycholanalytic theory highlighted the motivational underworld To Freud, much of our behaviour results from a never-ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defenses used to keep them under control Todays diverse psychodynamic theories continue to emphasize that, along with conscious mental processes, unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel Humanist Abraham Maslow believed that psychologys other perspectives ignored a key motive: our striving for personal growth. Distinguished between deficiency needs, which are concerned with physical and social survival, and growth needs, which are uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential Need Hierarchy: Maslows view that human needs are arranged in progression, beginning with deficiency needs and then reaching growth needs Self-Actualization: in humanistic theories, an inborn tendency to strive toward the realization of one full potential Self-Determination Theory: a theory about motivation that focuses on three fundamental psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness Competence motivation reflects a human need to master new challenges and perfect skills. Autonomy is satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference. Relatedness refers to our desire to from meaningful bonds with others. Hunger and Weight Regulation Metabolism: the rate of energy expenditure by the body Basal Metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells. Satiety - the state in which we no longer feel hungry as a result of eating. These signals adjust appetite and metabolism to compensate for times when you overeat or eat too little in the short term. Body also monitors long-term signals based on how much body fat you have. First consider these points though: 1. Hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs 2. Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent you from running low on energy in the first place. In evolutionary terms, an organism that does not eat until its energy supply starts to become low 3. There is a set point an internal physiological standard around which body weight (or more accurately, our fat mass) is registered Signals that Start and Terminate a Meal When you eat, digestive enzymes break food down into various nutrients Glucose: a simple sugar that s the bodys (and especially the brains) major source of immediately usable fuel After a meal, some glucose is transported into cells to provide energy, but a large portion is transferred to your liver and fat cells When blood glucose levels decrease, the liver responds by converting stored nutrients back into glucose As we eat, several bodily signals combine and ultimately cause us to end our meal. Stomach and Intestinal Distention are satiety signals The walls of the stomach and intestine stretch as food fills them up, sending nerve signals to the brain The intestines respond to food by releasing several hormones called peptides that help terminate a meal. One example is CCK (Cholecystokinin): a peptide that appears to decrease eating and therby helps to regulate food intake
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