PSYC 2410 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Franz Nissl, Dura Mater, Autonomic Nervous System

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19 Apr 2016
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Biopsychology Chapter 3
Psych 2410
3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
Divisions of the nervous system:
-The vertebrate nervous system is composed of two divisions:
CNS — the central nervous system is the division of the nervous system located
within the skull and spine
-composed of the brain and spinal cord
PNS — the peripheral nervous system is the division located outside the skull and
spine
-composed of the SOMATIC and AUTONOMIC nervous system
-Somatic nervous system (SNS)
the part of the PNS that interacts with the external environment
compose of afferent nerves and efferent nerves
afferent nerves= carry sensory signals from the skin, skeletal muscles, joints, eyes,
ears, etc. to the CNS
efferent nerves= carry motor signals from the central nervous system to the skeletal
muscles
-Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
the part of the PNS that regulates the body’s internal environment (i.e heart rate,
breathing, glucose levels, etc)
composed of afferent nerves that carry sensory signals from internal organs to the
CNS
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composed of efferent nerves that carry motor signals from the CNS to internal
organs
has two kinds of efferent nerves
1. sympathetic: autonomic motor
nerves that project from the
CNS in the lumbar (low of the
back) and thoracic (chest area)
regions from the spinal cord
2. parasympathetic: autonomic
motor nerves that project from
the brain and sacral (lower
back) region of the spinal cord
all sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves are two-stage neural paths
the sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons project from the CNS and go
only part of the way to the target organs before they synapse onto other
neurons (second stage neurons) that carry the signal the rest of the way
sympathetic neurons that project from the CNS synapse on second-stage
neurons at a substantial distance from their target organs
parasympathetic neurons that project from the CNS synapse on very short
second-stage neurons near their target organs
-Three important principles of the respective functions of the sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous systems:
1. sympathetic nerves stimulate, organize, and mobilize energy resources in
threatening situations (fight or flight response), whereas parasympathetic nerves
act to conserve energy
2. each autonomic target organ receives opposing sympathetic and
parasympathetic input, and it activity is thus controlled by relative levels of
sympathetic and parasympathetic activity
3. sympathetic changes are indicative of psychological arousal, whereas
parasympathetic changes are indicative if psychological relaxation
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-Cranial nerves
12 pairs of cranial nerves which project from the brain
into the PNS
the cranial nerves are numbered in sequence from front
to back
include purely sensory nerves (some which act also as
motor nerves)
12 cranial nerves in order…
1. Olfactory (sensory—smell)
2. Optic (sensory—vision)
3. Oculomotor (sensory—signals from certain eye muscles, motor—eye
movement and pupillary constriction)
4. Trochlear (sensory—signals from certain eye muscles, motor—eye
movement)
5. Trigeminal (sensory—facial sensations, motor—chewing)
6. Abducens (sensory—signals from certain eye muscles, motor—eye
movement)
7. Facial (sensory—taste from anterior two-thirds of tongue, motor—facial
expression, secretion of tears, salivation, cranial blood vessel dilation)
8. Auditory or Vestibulocochlear (sensory—audition, sensory signals from the
organs of balance in the inner ear)
9. Glossopharyngeal (sensory—taste from posterior third of tongue, motor—
salivation and swallowing)
10. Vagus (sensory—sensations from abdominal and thoracic organs, motor—
control over abdominal and thoracic organs and muscles of the throat)
11. Spinal accessory (sensory—signals from muscles of the neck, motor—
movement of the neck, shoulders, and head)
12. Hypoglossal (sensory—signals from tongue muscles, motor—tongue
movements)
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