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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Study Questions

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PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

Chapter 4 • What are three differences between small and large-molecule neurotransmitters? ◦ Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the terminal button, large-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized in the cell body's cytoplasm on ribosomes with the other proteins ◦ Small-molecule neurotransmitters are packaged in vesicles by the axon terminal's golgi complex, large-molecule neurotransmitters are packaged in vesicles by the cell body's golgi complex and then travel along microtubules to the terminal button ◦ Small-molecule neurotransmitters are of several types or varieties, large-molecule neurotransmitters are all neuropeptides ◦ Small-molecule neurotransmitters often release multiple vesicles during exocytosis (Per action potential), large-molecule neurotransmitters often release a single vesicle of neurotransmitters during exocytosis (Per action potential) ◦ Function of small-molecule neurotransmitters seems to be to transmit fast messages in short bursts in a specific area, function of large-molecule neurotransmitters seems to be to transmit messages more diffusely and over a slower, longer period of time • What is meant by coexistance? ◦ When two neurotransmitters are produced and released by the same neuron ◦ In every documented case of coexistance one neurotransmitter is a small-molecule neurotransmitter and the other is a large-molecule neurotransmitter • Explain the process of Exocytosis – is any part different for small and large molecule neurotransmitters? (Hint: Explain how neurotransmitters are released) ◦ Synaptic vesicles have a tendency to congregate around button walls in areas rich in calcium channels ◦ When the action potential comes down the axon, calcium channels are opened, causing calcium ions to rush in ◦ Calcium ions allow the synaptic vesicles to bind to the wall of the terminal button and release its contents into the synapse ◦ Large-molecule neurotransmitters often release a single vesicle per action potential ◦ Small-molecule neurotransmitters often release many vesicles in a wave with each action potential • What are the two types of receptors possible on the post-synaptic membrane? ◦ Ionic receptors open ion channels in response to the neurotransmitter binding to the postsynaptic membrane ◦ Metabotropic receptors are serpentine proteins that wind their way through the button wall 7 times, can either trigger ion channel openning or can release a second messenger into the cell • What are the two mechanisms of reuptake? ◦ Reuptake: Neurotransmitters are taken up by the presynaptic neuron via transporter mechanisms to be repackaged into synaptic vesicles ◦ Enzyme Degradation: Enzymes break down the neurotransmitter into its components • What are the three conventional classes of small-molecule neurotransmitters? The fourth class? ◦ Amino Acids ◦ Monoamines ◦ Acetylcholine ◦ Unconventional Small-Molecule Neurotransmitters • Describe the 4 most widely studied neurotransmitters within the AminoAcid class of neurotransmitters. ◦ Glutamate: Brain's most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter ◦ GABA: Inhibitory neurotransmitter synthesized from glutamate. Brain
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