Chapter 13: development of the self and social cognition. Self: combination of physical and psychological attributes that is unique to each individual. Social cognition: thinking that people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors of themselves and other people. According to meltzoff: differentiation of self and others is possible at birth. Newborns become upset when listening to a recording of another baby"s cries but not when they listen to a recording of. Other developmentalists believe that infants are born without a sense of self: psychoanalyst maragret mahler: Compares newborn to a (cid:498)chick in an egg(cid:499) Infant has no reason to differentiate the self from the surrounding environment. Every need the child has is satisfied by his caregivers who are always (cid:498)there(cid:499) and have no identities of their own. Impossible to know whether or not infants are born with a sense of self.