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Chapter 4

PSYC 2450 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: List Of Greyhawk Characters, Cognitive Deficit, Cretinism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2450
Professor
Anneke Olthof
Chapter
4

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Chapter 4 - Prenatal Development
Prenatal development: Development that occurs between the moment of conception and the
beginning of the birth process.
From Conception to Birth
Prenatal development divided in to 3 major phases
1. Period of the zygote (germinal period) from conception through implantation; when
the zygote becomes firmly attached to the wall of the uterus. (10 to 14 days)
2. Period of the embryo from the beginning of the third week through the end of the eight.
Time when all the major organs are formed and the heart begins to beat.
3. Period of the fetus from the ninth week until the child is born. All major organs begin to
function.
The Period of the Zygote
Zygote moves down fallopian tube towards uterus, divides by mitosis into two cells.
Those 2 cells and all other cells continue to divide and form a ball-shaped structure called
blastocyst. (Contains 60 to 80 cells within 4 days of conception)
The inner layer of the blastocyst or embryonic disk becomes the embryo, whereas the outer
layer of cells will develop into tissues that protect and nourish the embryo.
Implantation
- Blastocyst approaches the uterus 6 to 10 days after conception; small tendrils emerge from its
outer surface. When reaching the uterine wall, tendrils burrow inward, tapping the mother’s
blood supply implantation (burrowing of blastocyst into lining of uterus)
- Specific time where blastocyst must communicate with uterine wall to position and attach
itself properly.
- Process takes about 48 hrs. And occurs 7 to 10 days after ovulation. Entire process competed
about 10 to 14 days after ovulation.
Support Systems
- After being implanted, the blastocyst’s outer layer forms four major support structures to
protect and nourish the organism.
- Amnion: Watertight sac that fills with fluid from the mother’s tissues. Amniotic fluid
o Cushion the developing organism against blows, regulates its temperature, provides
weightless environment to make it easier to move.
o In watertight sac, there is another sac that produces blood cells until the embryo is capable
of producing its own.
- That yolk sac attaches to chorion: surrounds amnion and becomes the lining of the placenta.
Gathers nourishment for embryo
o Placenta: multipurpose organ. Provides for respiration and nourishment and elimination
of metabolic wastes.
- Fourth membrane: allantois: forms embryo’s umbilical cord: soft tube containing blood
vessels that connects the embryo to the placenta.

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Placenta
- Fed by blood vessels from the mother and the embryo.
- Prevents these two bloodstreams from mixing together
- Oxygen, carbon dioxide, salts, sugars, proteins and fats can pass through.
- Maternal blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to embryo through umbilical cord. Umbilical
cord also transports carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes.
- Wastes products cross-placental barrier, enter the mother’s bloodstream and are excreted
along with her own wastes.
See Figure 4.1 for Period of the Zygote
Period of the Embryo
- From implantation (3rd week) through 8th week.
- By 3rd week, embryonic disk is differentiating into 3 cell layers
o Outer layer - ectoderm will become nervous system, skin and hair
o Middle layer - mesoderm will become the muscles, bones and circulatory system.
o Inner layer - endoderm will become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract,
pancreas, liver.
- 3rd after conception, ectoderm folds into neural tube becomes brain and spinal cord.
- End of 4th week, heart starts beating - eyes, ears, nose and mouth are also forming/buds that
will become arms and legs also appear.
The Second Month
- Primitive tail appears but soon enclosed becomes the tip of the backbone and the coccyx.
- Ears are formed, rudimentary skeleton.
- Arms appear; upper arm first, followed by fore arms, hands and then fingers.
- Legs follow a few days later.
- 7th or 8th week, genital ridge appears called the indifferent gonad.
- Circulatory system now functions on its own, liver and spleen can now produce their own
blood cells.
Period of the Fetus
- Rapid growth and refinement of all organ systems
- Fetus begins to move, sense and behave.
The Third Month
- Organs become interconnected.
o Ex. Coordination between nervous and muscular systems allow fetus to kick its legs, make
fists, twist body.
o Digestive and excretory system are also working together
The Fourth through Sixth Month (Second Trimester - 13th to 24th)
- 15 or 16 weeks to 24 or 25 weeks movement tongue, lips, pharynx, larynx, suck, swallow,
cough, and snort
- 5th to 6th month nails harden, skin thickens, eyebrows, eyelashes, scalp hair appear
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