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Chapter 2

PSYC 2450 Chapter 2: Textbook Notes - Chapter 2

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PSYC 2450
Carol Anne Hendry

CHAPTER 2: FIRST HALF ****Pages 4057**** Theories of Human Development Characteristics of a good theory parsimony: uses relatively few explanatory principles to explain a broad set of observations Falsable: capable of making predictions about future events so that the theory can be supported or disconfirmed. Heuristic: builds on existing knowledge to stimulate new research and discoveries. 6 theoretical traditions that have had a major impact on the science of Human 1.The psychoanalytic viewpoint Freud(18561939) proposes that we as humans are driven by motives and conflicts of which we are unaware and that personality is shaped by early experiences in childhood. Freuds Psychosexual Theory relied heavily on methods such as hypnosis and dream analysis because they gave indication of the repressing of unconscious motives by his patients. once these motives of repression were analyzed Freud was able to conclude that human development is a conflictual process humans have basic sexual and aggressive instincts but must restrain what is natural to us because society dictates that these traits to be undesirable. 3 components of personality 1. Id component of personality in which we are born with, driven only by natural instincts often irrational e.g. a hungry baby crying until its needs are met 2. Ego The conscious, rational component of personality reflects the emerging abilities to perceive, learn, remember, and reason function is to find realistic means of gratifying instincts. e.g. Hungry child remembers how to get food, seeks out mother and says cookie as time progresses the child becomes better at controlling the irrational id and finds realistic ways to have their needs met 3. Superego consists of ones internalized moral standards. develops between the age of 36 as children take on moral standards demonstrated by their parents as their own now aware of their own transgressions and will feel a sense of guiltshame in unethical(bad) conduct internal sensor which insists the ego find socially acceptable outlets for the ids undesirable impulses. STAGES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT 1) Oral birth1 year sex instincts focus on the mouth infants derive pleasure from sucking, chewing, biting feeding activities are particularly important e.g . infant weaned too early may later crave close contact, becoming over dependent on a spouse. 2) Anal 13 years Primary method of gratifying sex instinct: voluntary urination and defecation toilet training may have lasting effects on a child if the parent creates a negative emotional climate E.g. children who are punished for toilet training accidents may become messy or wasteful. 3) Phallic 36 years
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