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Chapter 14

PSYC 2450 Chapter 14: Textbook Notes - Chapter 14

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Carol Anne Hendry

Chapter 14 Sex and Gender Gender typing: A child becomes aware of his or her gender and acquires motives, values, and behaviours considered appropriate for members of that sex. Gender standard: behaviour, values, or motive that members of a society consider more typical of one sex Expressive role: social prescription, usually directed toward females, that one should be cooperative, kid, nurturing, and sensitive to the needs of others. Instrumental role: social prescription, usually directed toward males, that one should be dominant, independent, assertive, competitive and goaloriented. Actual Differences Between Sexes (pg. 519) o Verbal Ability Girls have greater ability than boys o VisualSpatial Ability Boys outperform girls on visualspatial tests o Mathematical Ability In the beginning boys have a slight advantage but with age girls exceed because of motivation o Agression Boys are more aggressive, verbally and physically, than girls. Girls handle conflict with hostility. o Activity Level Boys are more physically active than girls as a whole o RiskTaking Boys engage in more risky activity o Development Venerability Boys are more physically vulnerable to disabilities, disease, and developmental problems o Emotions Same at birth but boys are more likely to show emotions as toddlers than girls. Then as they age girls are more emotional than boys. o Compliance Girls are more compliant than boys o SelfEsteem Boys have higher selfesteem than girls Cultural Myths that Contribute to Sex Differences (pg. 524) o Selffulfilling prophecy: phenomenon whereby people cause others to act in accordance with the expectations they have about those others o Home Influences: Treating siblings differently according to their gender. For example, contributing their daughters math abilities to hard work and the sons as being expected of him. o Scholastic Influences: A stereotype that girls perform better in english and the arts where as boys excel in science and math Trends in Gender Typing (pg. 525) o Gender identity: our awareness of our gender and its implications o Developing a Gender Identity Putting girls and boys into distinct, separate categories Looking at pictures and identifying whether it is a boy or a girl
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