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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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PSYC 2450
Erin Allard

Chapter 11- Emotional Development, Temperament, and Attachment Emotional Development DISPLAYING EMOTIONS Sequencing of Discrete Emotion: - babies communicate a variety of their feelings through facial expressions, and that each expression becomes a more recognizable sign of a specific emotion with age (positive emotions are easier to distinguish) Basic Emotions: the set of emotions present at birth or emerging early in the first year that some theorists believe to be biologically programmed; anger, sadness, joy, surprise Complex emotions: self-conscious or self-evaluative emotions that emerge in the second year and depend, in part, on cognitive development; embarrassment(believed to not emerge until a baby can recognize herself in a mirror), shame, envy, pride - later developing emotions are truly complex and have different implications for the child’s behaviour - parents influence a child’s experience and expression of self-evaluative emotions(shame, guilt, pride) - how parents react to transgressions may determine which emotion children feel, guilty or shameful Socialization of Emotions and Emotional Self-Regulation: Emotional Display Set: culturally defined rules specifying which emotions should or should not be expressed under which circumstances - through basic learning processes, babies are trained to display more pleasant faces and fewer unpleasant ones, based on reactions from mother Emotional Self-regulation: strategies for managing emotions or adjusting emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity - regulating and controlling emotions is a difficult task for infants - by the end of the first year, infants develop strategies for reducing negative arousal-> rocking themselves, chewing on objects - by 18-24 months, they’re more likely to try and control the actions of other people or objects that upset them - yet, toddlers find it impossible to regulate fear - children who are exposed to frequent displays of negative emotion at home, whether it is directed at them or not, often display high levels of negative emotionality that they have difficulty regulating - effective regulation of emotions involves an ability to suppress, maintain, or even intensify emotional arousal to remain productively engaged with the challenges we face or the people we encounter - by age 3, children begin to show some limited ability to disguise their true feelings - girls are both more motivated and more skilled at complying with display rules than boys RECOGNIZING AND INTERPRETING EMOTIONS Social Referencing: - the use of others’ emotional expressions to infer meaning of otherwise ambiguous situations - by end of the first year, infants typically approach and play with unfamiliar toys if a nearby stranger is smiling but avoid them if they’re frowning - during the second year, toddlers often look to their companions after they have appraised a new object or situation, thereby suggesting that thy are now using others’ emotional reactions as info to assess the accuracy of their judgment Empathy: the ability to experience the same emotions that someone else is experiencing - by age 4-5, can correctly infer whether a person is happy, angry or sad from his or her body movements - 6-9 year olds can understand that people can experience more than one emotion EMOTIONS AND EARLY SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT - the emotional expression of infants helps infants and close companions get to know each other - developmentalists believe that achieving emotional competence is crucial to children’s competence, that is, their ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while continuing to maintain positive relationships with others - Emotional competence has three components: Competent emotional expressivity(which involves frequent expression of more positive emotions and relatively infrequent display of negative ones), Competent emotional knowledge (which involves the ability to correctly identify other people’s feelings and the factors responsible for them), and Competent emotional regulation (the ability to adjust one’s experience and expression of emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity to successfully achieve one’s goals) Temperament and Development Temperament: a person;s characteristic modes of responding emotionally and behaviourally to environmental events, including such attributes as activity level, irritability, fearfulness, and sociability Six Dimensions of individual differences in infant temperament: 1) Fearful distress: wariness, withdrawal in new situation 2) Irritable distress: fussiness, crying, frustration 3) Positive affect: frequency of smiling, willingness to approach others 4) Activity level: kicking, crawling 5) Attention span/persistence: length of tim child orients to objects of interest 6) Rhythmicity: regularity/predictability or bodily functions - variations on some temperaments take some time to appear HEREDITARY AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON TEMPERAMENT Hereditary Influences: - identical twins are more similar on most attributes: activity level, demands for attention, irritability etc Environmental Influences: - home environments have been shown to influence positive aspect of temperament including smiling and soothability, yet shared environment contributes very little to activity levels, and negative attributes including irritability and fearfulness Cultural influences: - in Canada and the USm children who are shy and reserved are at a social disadvantage-> including being rejected by peers - in Asian cultures, theres things are valued however - outcomes related to shyness differ dramatically across cultures STABILITY OF TEMPERAMENT - several components of research- activity level, irritability, sociability and fearfulness- are moderately stable through infancy, childhood, and sometimes even into the early adult years - no all individuals are temperamentally stable Behavioural Inhibition: a temperamental attribute reflecting one’s tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar from unfamiliar people or situations; a moderately stable attribute that may have deep biological roots; genetically influenced - the most highly inhibited and most highly uninhibited are most likely to display such long-term stability EARLY TEMPERAMENT PROFILES AND LATER DEVELOPMENT Temperament Profiles: 1) Easy Temperament: easygoing children are even-tempered, typically in a positive mood, and quite adaptable to new experiences. Habits are regular and predictable 2) Difficult Temperament: Active, irritable, and irregular in their habits. Often react very vigorously to changes in routine and are very slow to adapt to new persons 3) Slow-to-warm-up Temperament: quite inactive, somewhat moody, and can be slow to adapt to new situations. But, they typically respond to novelty in mildly (rather than intensely like difficult temperament) negative ways “Goodness-of-fit” model: notion that development is likely to be optimized when parents’ child-rearing practices are sensitively adapted to the child’s temperamental characteristics Attachment and Development Attachment: a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire maintain proximity Reciprocal relationships: Infants become attached to parents, and parents become attached to infants - genuine emotional attachments build slowly from parent-infant interactions over several months Synchronized routines: generally harmonious interactions between two persons in which participants adjust their behaviour in response to the partner’s feelings and behaviours - even very young infants have come to expect some degree of “synchrony” between their own gestures and those of caregivers HOW DO INFANTS BECOME ATTACHED The Growth of Primary Attachments: - Infants pass through the following phases as they develop close ties with their caregivers: 1) Asocial Phase (0-6 weeks): infants respond in an equall favourable way to interesting social and nonsocial stimuli 2) Phase of th Indiscriminate Attachments (6w to 6&7 months): prefer social to nonsocial situations and are likely to protest whenever any adult puts them don or leaves them along 3) Specific Attachment Phase (7-9 months): infants are attached to one close companion (usually the mother) 4) Phase of multiple attachments (9-18 months): when infants form attachments to companions other than their primary attachment object Secure Base: infant’s use of a caregiver as a base from which to explore the environment and to which to return for emotional support Theories of Attachment: Psychoanalytic Theory: I love you because you feed me - according to Freud, infants should be attracted to anyone who provides oral pleasure - mother’s feeding practices influence the strength or security of her infant’s attachment; however overall responsiveness is more important than feeding Learn
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