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Chapter 17

Developmental chapter 17.pdf

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Anneke Olthof

Developmental Psychology Chapter 17 Television Canadian statistics on TV viewing More than 98% of homes have one or more TV sets 15.3 hours / week for children 2-11 years By age 18, more time spent watching TV than any activity (except sleeping) Boys watch more TV than girls Extra-familial influences: Social agencies other than the family that influence a child or adolescent’s cognitive, social, and emotional development o Impact on development: television, schools and society of ones peers The ‘Notel’ study - Done to look at impact of TV  ‘before’ TV children scored higher in creativity and reading than Canadian peers with TV access  2-4 years ‘after’ TV declines in reading and creativity compared to peers o Also declines in community involvement and increases in aggression and gender stereotyping  Overall there are advantages and disadvantages o Groups with TV and without access to TV Television literacy  Ability to understand how information is conveyed on TV  properly interpret information o Television literacy: one’s ability to understand how information is conveyed in television programming and to interpret this information properly  Involves ability to process program content Developmental Psychology Chapter 17  So one can construct a story line from characters activities and sequencing of scenes o Ability to interpret the form of the message  Zooms, cuts, fade outs, split screens and sounds effects often essential to interpret the message Development of television literacy Piecemeal understanding in young children (under 8) o More captivated by zooms, cuts, fast paced action, loud music and children’s or cartoon characters voices o Actions remembered rather than goals o Fictional aspect not understood  Preschool children often unable to understand the chain of events leading from the beginning to the end of a story Preschoolers or young will tune in if its stimuli intensive but for most part will fade in and out Preschoolers can’t really focus long enough for the entire show Effects of watching violence on TV Cartoons especially violent Violence often portrayed with humor Link between TV violence and aggression? o Strong positive relationship o Reciprocal  Watching TV violence increases children’s aggressive tendencies, simulates interest in violent programing which promotes further aggression Developmental Psychology Chapter 17 o Mean-World-Belief: A belief, fostered by televised violence, that the world is a more dangerous and frightening place than is actually the case  Believe people use violence to solve their problems o Desensitization Hypothesis: The notion that people who watch a lot of media violence will become less aroused by aggression and more tolerant of violent and aggressive acts Kids become less upset by violence on TV and are more willing to accept violence in life Watch more violence become immune to it, doesn’t accept you the same way anymore “develop a tolerance” o Effects of watching violence on TV o Follow up from 8 year old at 30, look at how that was related to the mean violent crimes. The ones who had a high preference for watching violent TV ended up being the ones who committed the most violent crimes Other Messages Gender stereotypes: o children who watch more TV tend to have more gender stereotypes Racial/Ethnic stereotypes: o More likely to develop these, minorities aren’t as prominent as whites on TV, usually not portrayed as nicely as whites. Developmental Psychology Chapter 17  Study 8 made Canadian TV shows 50% lead roles white 16% ethnic backgrounds Marketing in commercials: o Young children inclined to ask for things they see on TV o Conflicts may arise when parents refuse o By 9-11 most children realize that commercials are designed to persuade and sell o 13-14 acquired healthy skepticism Undermining health o Obese: a medial term describing individuals who are at least 20 percent above the idea weight for their height, age, and sex o Strongest predictors of future obesity is the amount of time children spend watching children Reducing harmful effects of TV Limit TV viewing and monitor viewings o Limit to violent programming ensure content based rating system reflects age guidelines Encourage appropriate viewing Explain “what they watched” Model good viewing habits “Watch appropriate things as well” Deal with effects of advertising “The point of a commercial is to sell you a product, explain that to the kids and take away some of the allure.” Parent authoritatively: “Best parenting style, when parented that way will follow rules better in this style you would have explained why and would help Developmental Psychology Chapter 17 Can TV contribute to cognitive development? Sesame Street o Become more pro-socially inclines  For lasting benefits adult monitors and encourages children to rehearse and enact pro social lessons they have learned o Ages 3-5, aims to increase skills of disadvantaged children o Skills emphasized: kids who watch this show cognitive gains in these areas Counting Recognizing and discriminating numbers/letters Classifying objects Simple problem solving Writing their names Computers Computer assisted instruction - Computer-assisted instruction (CAI): use of computers to teach new concepts and practice academic skills - Drills o Simple drills that start at a student’s current skill level and present increasingly difficult problems often with hints or clues when progress breaks down - Games o More elaborate forms of CAI are guided tutorials that rely less on drill and more on discovery of important concepts and principles in the context of highly motivating games Developmental Psychology Chapter 17 Benefits of computer programming - Logo: creativity done with grade 1’s o Logo, a computer language that allows children to translate drawings they've made into input statements so that they can reproduce their - Problem solving, creativity, metacognition benefits - The internet: very valuable tool o Two thirds of elementary and secondary schools used for educational purposes Concerns about computers - Video games: o Doesn't decrease from academic duties, decreases TV time, violent video games are worse than watching violent TV  Surveys of grade 4-12 found moderate positive correlations between time spent playing video games and real world aggressive behaviours - Social inequality: o Disadvantaged kids may not have computers or as many, this puts them at a social disadvantage to others who do  Economically disadvantaged families may be exposed at school but likely won’t have computer at home - Internet o Pornography  Cyber sexual encounters, exploitation by adult chat-mates o Recruitment  Cults, heaven’s gate, KKK o Bullying Developmental Psychology Chapter 17 Parents can: - Learn the technology “more proficient than their kids” - Place computers in viable locations “Know what their kids are doing” - Include teen in family activities - Limit online time - Monitor online activities School Aspects of successful schools - Informal Curriculum: Non-curricular objectives of schooling such as teaching children to cooperate, to respect authority, to obey rules, and to become good citizens - Effective Schools: Schools that are generally successful at achieving curricular and non-curricular objectives regardless of the racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic backgrounds of the student population - Composition of the study body: o Any child will make more progress if taught in a school with a higher concentration of highly motivated intellectually capable peers  Schools with kids who are intellectually competent and motivated to learn - School Climate o How safe they feel, how much support and encouragement they feel from school personnel  When children feel safe and encouraged they are more engaged in school  Helps them achieve academically and socially  Having feedback from teachers and mentors reassuring kids are doing well Developmental Psychology Chapter 17 - Scholastic atmosphere o Academic emphasis  Clear focus on academic goals  Children regularly assigned homework, which is then checked, corrected and discussed with them o Challenging curricula “one that fits kids interests, culture.”  Content children can relate to because it emphasizes culture and history  As well as developmental issues they are facing  Promotes achievement related behaviours  Effort, attention, attendance, appropriate class room behaviour  Content that does not challenge or that they don’t feel personally related too leads in poor performance and alienation from school society o Classroom management  Teacher that uses class time for academics and not behavioural management problems  Lessons begin and end on time  Students told exactly what is expected of them, receive clear and unambiguous feedback about their academic performance o Discipline: immediate reinforcement of rules  Staff firm in enforcing rules and does so immediately on the spot rather than sending offenders to the principal’s office o Teamwork  Effective schools have faculties that work as a team, jointly planning curricular objectives and monitoring student progress  Teachers working together, let other know about behavioural outcomes of students they have previously taught Aptitude-treatment interaction “Goodness of fit” Developmental Psychology Chapter 17 - Aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI): phenomenon whereby characteristics of the student and of the school environment interact to affect student outcomes, such that any given educational practice may be effective with some students and not with others. - No one best philosophy or method - Must tailor practices to particular students o High ability, middle-class students benefit moving at a quick pace and insisting on high standards of performance o Low ability and disadvantaged students often respond better to a teacher who motivated them by being warm and encouraging rather than intrusive and demanding - Sensitivity to culture o European American students come from cultures that stress individual learning  Well suited to individual master expectations emphasized in tradition classrooms o Ethnic Hawaiians and other cultures stressing cooperation and collaborative approaches do poorly in traditional classrooms  Spend a lot of time seeking attention of class makes, pay little attention to teacher  Culturally compatible education having teachers circulate among small groups, instructing and encouraging group members works better for them Educating students with special needs - Inclusion (mainstreaming) o Educational practice of integrating students with special needs into regular classrooms rather than placing them in segregated special education classes (formerly referred to as mainstreaming)  Does it work?  Not very well, did worse than those who went to special segregated classes Developmental Psychology Chapter 17  Self-esteem declines because classmates ridicule them  Integrated these children in the class prepares them for better society  No academic or social gains
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