Textbook Notes (368,316)
Canada (161,798)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2450 (267)
Chapter 13

devlelopmental psych Chapter 13

10 Pages
106 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2450
Professor
Jennifer Mc Taggart
Semester
Winter

Description
Developmental Chapter 13 The Development of the Self and Social Cognition  Self – the combination of physical and psychological attributes that is unique to each individual  Social Cognition – thinking that people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviour of themselves and other people Development of the Self-Concept  Proprioceptive Feedback – sensory information from the muscles, tendons, and joints that helps us locate the position of our body (or body parts) in space - Newborns can distinguish themselves from their surroundings and use proprioceptive feedback to mimic some of the expressions their caregivers display Self-Differentiation Theory - First glimmerings of self-differentiation can be seen by at least the first 2 – 3 months of life - During the first 2 months babies exercise their reflexive schemes and repeat pleasurable acts centred on their own bodies  Personal Agency – recognition that on can be the cause of an event - 2-month old infants have a limited sense of personal agency Self-Recognition in Infancy  Self-concept – one’s perceptions of one’s unique attributes or traits - Recognizing one’s own features and becoming able to tell yourself apart from others - 5-month olds can differentiate themselves  Self-recognition – the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or photograph - Begins around 18 – 24 months  Present Self – early self-representation in which 2 and 3 year olds recognize current representations of self but are unaware of the past self-representations or self-relevant events have implications for the present  Extended Self – more mature self-representation, emerging between ages 3 ½ to 5 years in which children are able to integrate past, current, and unknown future self-representations into a notion that endures over time - Secure attachment to a primary caregiver contributes to self-awareness in humans - The more individualistic a society, the higher self-awareness Social and Emotional Consequences of Self-Recognition  Categorical Self – a person’s classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex - With self-recognition, toddlers begin to categorize themselves “Who Am I?” Responses - Children 3 ½ - 5 years old when responding to forced-choice contrasting statements characterize themselves on psychological dimensions such as sociability, athleticism, achievement orientation, argumentativeness, or intelligence - Open ended questions leads to talking mostly about their physical attributes Self in Middle Childhood and Adolescence - As children get older they evolve to describing inner qualities of themselves such as traits, values, beliefs, and ideologies - More abstract or psychological portrayal of self  False-Self Behaviour – acting in ways that do not reflect one’s true self, or the “true me” - Children who display the false self-behaviour are often least confident with who they truly are - Usually develops around age 15 Who Am I to Be? Forging an Identity  Individualistic Society – society that values personalism and individual accomplishments, which often take precedence over group goals. These societies tend to emphasize ways in which individuals differ from each other  Collectivist (or Communal) Society – society that values cooperative interdependence, social harmony, and adherence to group norms. These societies generally hold that the group’s well-being is more important than that of the individual  Identity – a mature self-definition; a sense of who you are, where you are going in life, and how you fit into society - Differs due to which type of society one is raised in Identity Statuses 1. Identity Diffusion - persons classified as “diffuse” have not yet thought about or resolved identity issues and has not yet charted life directions. - I am not sure what I believe in… 2. Identity Foreclosure – persons classified as “foreclosed” are committed to an identity and have made this commitment without experiencing the “crisis” of deciding what really suits them best - My parents are Catholic, so I am too. 3. Identity Moratorium – persons in this status are experiencing what Erikson called an identity crisis and are actively asking questions about life commitments and seeking answers - I was raised a Catholic but I am skeptical of some the teachings. I probably should re-evaluate my beliefs… 4. Identity Achievement – identity-achieved individuals have solved identity issues and making personal commitments to particular goals, beliefs, and values - After re-evaluating my religion and other religions, I finally know what I believe in and what I don’t. Developmental Trends in Identity Formation - Erikson believed identity formation is a lifelong process - Adolescence is a time where identity issues are most important - Establishing an identity in adolescence is critical for later stages of development - Identity formation often doesn’t occur until late adolescence and early adulthood - Many adults struggle with identity issues and reopen questions of who they are - The process of achieving an identity is uneven, one can have a strong sense of identity in one area and still be searching in others Identity Formation and Adjustment - Active identity seekers feel much better about themselves and their future - Identity achievers have greater self-esteem and are less self-conscious - Without a clear identity Erikson believed individuals become depressed, lacking in self-confidence, and drift aimlessly Influences on Identity Formation Cognitive - Adolescents that have achieved mastery of formal-operational thought can reason logically about hypotheticals therefore imagine and contemplate future identities - They are more likely to raise and resolve identity issues Parenting - Adolescents that are neglected or rejected are often in the diffusion state - Adolescents with controlling parents are more often in the foreclosure state - Solid base of affection contributes to the moratorium and identity achievements Scholastic - College/University pushes individuals to make career goals - Puts individuals behind in establishing religious or political identities - Some regress from identity achievement to moratorium or diffusion state Sociocultural Influences - Western societies encourage adolescents to raise serious questions about the self and answer them Self-Esteem: The Evaluative Component of Self  Self-Esteem – one’s evaluation of one’s worth as a person, based on an assessment of the qualities that make up the self-concept - Being satisfied or disappointed in oneself Origins and Development of the Self-Esteem - Bowlby’s working-models theory predicts: - Securely attached children should evaluate themselves more positively because they presumable construct a positive working model of self and others - As early as age 4 and 5 children have already established an early and meaningful sense of self-esteem Components of Self-Esteem Susan Harter’s hierarchical model of childhood self-esteem: Self Perception Scale of 5 Domains - Scholastic competence, social acceptance, physical appearance, athletic competence, behavioural conduct - 4 to 7 year olds may have inflated self-perceptions because they rate themselves positively in all domains - Age 8, children’s own competency appraisals begin to reflect other’s evaluations of them  Relational Self-Worth – feelings of self-esteem within a particular relationship context (for example, with parents, with male classmates, etc.) may differ across relationship context - Early adolescence, one’s perception of self-worth becomes centred on interpersonal relationships Changes in Self-Esteem - Declines end of childhood and early adolescence then recovers later in adolescence and emerging adulthood - Due to leaving childhood behind the transition period of searching for an adult identity Social Contributors to Self-Esteem Parenting Styles - Link between high self-esteem and a nurturing democratic parenting style Peer Influences  Social Comparison – the process of defining and evaluating the self by comparing oneself to other people - as early as age 4 and 5 children begin using social comparison to tell them whether they perform better or worse than their peers in various domains - increases and becomes more subtle with age - peers and romantic partners are the strongest contributors to self-esteem in adolescents Culture, Ethnicity, and Self-Esteem - Children and adolescents from collectivist societies report lower levels of global self-esteem than individualistic societies - Western societies: people compete and take more pride for accomplishments, have individual objectives - Collectivist societies: value humility, self-effacement, and derive self-worth from contributing to the welfare of the groups they belong to Development of Achievement Motivation and Academic Self-Concept  Achievement Motivation – a willingness to strive to succeed at challenging tasks and to meet high standards of accomplishment - Children differ in achievement motivation, therefore the relationship of IQ and academic achievement is far from perfect  Mastery Motivation – an inborn motive to explore, understand, and control our environment - Some children try harder than others to master certain aspects of their lives such as school, music, sports etc.
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2450

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit