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Chapter 13

devlelopmental psych Chapter 13

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PSYC 2450
Jennifer Mc Taggart

Developmental Chapter 13 The Development of the Self and Social Cognition  Self – the combination of physical and psychological attributes that is unique to each individual  Social Cognition – thinking that people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviour of themselves and other people Development of the Self-Concept  Proprioceptive Feedback – sensory information from the muscles, tendons, and joints that helps us locate the position of our body (or body parts) in space - Newborns can distinguish themselves from their surroundings and use proprioceptive feedback to mimic some of the expressions their caregivers display Self-Differentiation Theory - First glimmerings of self-differentiation can be seen by at least the first 2 – 3 months of life - During the first 2 months babies exercise their reflexive schemes and repeat pleasurable acts centred on their own bodies  Personal Agency – recognition that on can be the cause of an event - 2-month old infants have a limited sense of personal agency Self-Recognition in Infancy  Self-concept – one’s perceptions of one’s unique attributes or traits - Recognizing one’s own features and becoming able to tell yourself apart from others - 5-month olds can differentiate themselves  Self-recognition – the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or photograph - Begins around 18 – 24 months  Present Self – early self-representation in which 2 and 3 year olds recognize current representations of self but are unaware of the past self-representations or self-relevant events have implications for the present  Extended Self – more mature self-representation, emerging between ages 3 ½ to 5 years in which children are able to integrate past, current, and unknown future self-representations into a notion that endures over time - Secure attachment to a primary caregiver contributes to self-awareness in humans - The more individualistic a society, the higher self-awareness Social and Emotional Consequences of Self-Recognition  Categorical Self – a person’s classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex - With self-recognition, toddlers begin to categorize themselves “Who Am I?” Responses - Children 3 ½ - 5 years old when responding to forced-choice contrasting statements characterize themselves on psychological dimensions such as sociability, athleticism, achievement orientation, argumentativeness, or intelligence - Open ended questions leads to talking mostly about their physical attributes Self in Middle Childhood and Adolescence - As children get older they evolve to describing inner qualities of themselves such as traits, values, beliefs, and ideologies - More abstract or psychological portrayal of self  False-Self Behaviour – acting in ways that do not reflect one’s true self, or the “true me” - Children who display the false self-behaviour are often least confident with who they truly are - Usually develops around age 15 Who Am I to Be? Forging an Identity  Individualistic Society – society that values personalism and individual accomplishments, which often take precedence over group goals. These societies tend to emphasize ways in which individuals differ from each other  Collectivist (or Communal) Society – society that values cooperative interdependence, social harmony, and adherence to group norms. These societies generally hold that the group’s well-being is more important than that of the individual  Identity – a mature self-definition; a sense of who you are, where you are going in life, and how you fit into society - Differs due to which type of society one is raised in Identity Statuses 1. Identity Diffusion - persons classified as “diffuse” have not yet thought about or resolved identity issues and has not yet charted life directions. - I am not sure what I believe in… 2. Identity Foreclosure – persons classified as “foreclosed” are committed to an identity and have made this commitment without experiencing the “crisis” of deciding what really suits them best - My parents are Catholic, so I am too. 3. Identity Moratorium – persons in this status are experiencing what Erikson called an identity crisis and are actively asking questions about life commitments and seeking answers - I was raised a Catholic but I am skeptical of some the teachings. I probably should re-evaluate my beliefs… 4. Identity Achievement – identity-achieved individuals have solved identity issues and making personal commitments to particular goals, beliefs, and values - After re-evaluating my religion and other religions, I finally know what I believe in and what I don’t. Developmental Trends in Identity Formation - Erikson believed identity formation is a lifelong process - Adolescence is a time where identity issues are most important - Establishing an identity in adolescence is critical for later stages of development - Identity formation often doesn’t occur until late adolescence and early adulthood - Many adults struggle with identity issues and reopen questions of who they are - The process of achieving an identity is uneven, one can have a strong sense of identity in one area and still be searching in others Identity Formation and Adjustment - Active identity seekers feel much better about themselves and their future - Identity achievers have greater self-esteem and are less self-conscious - Without a clear identity Erikson believed individuals become depressed, lacking in self-confidence, and drift aimlessly Influences on Identity Formation Cognitive - Adolescents that have achieved mastery of formal-operational thought can reason logically about hypotheticals therefore imagine and contemplate future identities - They are more likely to raise and resolve identity issues Parenting - Adolescents that are neglected or rejected are often in the diffusion state - Adolescents with controlling parents are more often in the foreclosure state - Solid base of affection contributes to the moratorium and identity achievements Scholastic - College/University pushes individuals to make career goals - Puts individuals behind in establishing religious or political identities - Some regress from identity achievement to moratorium or diffusion state Sociocultural Influences - Western societies encourage adolescents to raise serious questions about the self and answer them Self-Esteem: The Evaluative Component of Self  Self-Esteem – one’s evaluation of one’s worth as a person, based on an assessment of the qualities that make up the self-concept - Being satisfied or disappointed in oneself Origins and Development of the Self-Esteem - Bowlby’s working-models theory predicts: - Securely attached children should evaluate themselves more positively because they presumable construct a positive working model of self and others - As early as age 4 and 5 children have already established an early and meaningful sense of self-esteem Components of Self-Esteem Susan Harter’s hierarchical model of childhood self-esteem: Self Perception Scale of 5 Domains - Scholastic competence, social acceptance, physical appearance, athletic competence, behavioural conduct - 4 to 7 year olds may have inflated self-perceptions because they rate themselves positively in all domains - Age 8, children’s own competency appraisals begin to reflect other’s evaluations of them  Relational Self-Worth – feelings of self-esteem within a particular relationship context (for example, with parents, with male classmates, etc.) may differ across relationship context - Early adolescence, one’s perception of self-worth becomes centred on interpersonal relationships Changes in Self-Esteem - Declines end of childhood and early adolescence then recovers later in adolescence and emerging adulthood - Due to leaving childhood behind the transition period of searching for an adult identity Social Contributors to Self-Esteem Parenting Styles - Link between high self-esteem and a nurturing democratic parenting style Peer Influences  Social Comparison – the process of defining and evaluating the self by comparing oneself to other people - as early as age 4 and 5 children begin using social comparison to tell them whether they perform better or worse than their peers in various domains - increases and becomes more subtle with age - peers and romantic partners are the strongest contributors to self-esteem in adolescents Culture, Ethnicity, and Self-Esteem - Children and adolescents from collectivist societies report lower levels of global self-esteem than individualistic societies - Western societies: people compete and take more pride for accomplishments, have individual objectives - Collectivist societies: value humility, self-effacement, and derive self-worth from contributing to the welfare of the groups they belong to Development of Achievement Motivation and Academic Self-Concept  Achievement Motivation – a willingness to strive to succeed at challenging tasks and to meet high standards of accomplishment - Children differ in achievement motivation, therefore the relationship of IQ and academic achievement is far from perfect  Mastery Motivation – an inborn motive to explore, understand, and control our environment - Some children try harder than others to master certain aspects of their lives such as school, music, sports etc.
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