PSYC 2450 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Longitudinal Study, Moral Development, Truancy

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2450
Developmental Chapter 15
Moral Development, Altruism, and Aggression
Moral Development
Morality a set of principles or ideals that help the individual to distinguish right
from wrong, to act on this distinction, and to feel pride in virtuous conduct and
guilt (or other unpleasant emotions) for conduct that violates one’s standards
Internalization the process of adopting the attributes or standards of other
people taking these standards as one’s own
- Adapt what they learn and conform to these ideals
- Crucial milestone along the road to moral maturity
How Developmentalists Look at Morality
Moral Affect affective, or emotional, component that consists of the feelings
(guilt, concern for others’ feelings, etc.) that surround right or wrong actions and
that motivate moral thoughts and action
Moral Reasoning cognitive component centres on the way we conceptualize
right and wrong and makes decisions about how to behave
Moral Behaviour behavioural component that reflects how we actually behave
when we experience the temptation to violate moral rules
Affective Component of Moral Development Moral Affect
Freud’s Theory of Oedipal Morality
Oedipal Morality moral development that occurs during the phallic period at
ages 3 6 when children internalize the moral standards of the same-sex parent
as they resolve their Oedipus and Electra conflict
Newer Ideas about the Early Development of the Conscience
Mutually Responsive Relationship parent-child relationship characterized by
mutual responsiveness to each other’s and goals and shared positive affect
- Children may develop a form a conscience as toddlers if they have this
relationship
- They are more likely to display…
Committed Compliance compliance based on the child’s eagerness to
cooperate with a responsive parent who has been willing to cooperate with him
or her
- involves motivation to embrace and comply with parents rules and requests,
sensitivity to parent’s emotional signals (whether they’ve done right or wrong),
and internalizing those reactions to their triumphs and transgressions
Situational Compliance compliance based primarily on a parent’s power to
control the child’s conduct
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Cognitive Component of Moral Development Moral Reasoning
Piaget’s Theory
- Focuses on 2 Aspects:
1. Respect for Rules
2. Conceptions of Justice
Premoral Period the first give years of life when children are said to have little
respect for OR awareness of socially defined rules
Heteronomous Morality first stage (ages 5 10), “under the rule of another”
- Children view rules or authority figures as sacred and unalterable
- See things as moral absolutes, right and wrong with no shades of gray
- Immanent Justice the notion that unacceptable conduct will invariably be
punished and that justice is ever present in the world
Autonomous Morality by age 10 or 11, second stage in which children realize
that rules are arbitrary agreements that can be challenged and changed with the
consent of the people they govern
Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
- Underestimates the moral capacities of preschool and elementary school
children, children younger than 10 are quite capable of questioning adult
authority
Respecting Rules and Authority
- Children encounter 2 types of rules:
Moral Rules standards of acceptable and unacceptable conduct that focus on
the rights and privileges of individuals (if something violates others rights)
Social-Conventional Rules standards of conduct determined by social
consensus that indicate what is appropriate within a particular social context
(social norms)
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
- Extended and elaborated Piaget’s view
- Moral development extends far beyond Piaget’s autonomous stage and becomes
complex throughout adolescence into young adulthood
KOHLBERG’S THEORY BELOW (next page)
….
..
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Level 1: Preconventional Morality rules are truly external to the self rather than
internalized, the child conforms to rules imposed by authority figures to avoid
punishment or obtain personal rewards. Morality: self-serving, what is right is what you
can get away with or what is personally satisfying.
Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation.
- Goodness/badness of an act depends on consequence of the act
- Obey authority to avoid punishment, the greater the harm done, the more severe
the punishment, the more bad the act is
- May not consider an act wrong if it is not punished
Stage 2: Naïve Hedonism
- Conform to rules to gain rewards and satisfy personal objectives
- Other-oriented behaviour is motivated by the hope of benefiting in return with
little awareness of other’s perspectives
- “You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours”
Level 2: Conventional Morality individual strives to obey rules and social norms to
win others’ approval or maintain social order, tangible rewards and punishments are
now: social praise and avoidance of blame. Other’s perspectives are recognized and
considered carefully at this stage.
Stage 3: “Good boy” or “Good girl” Orientation
- Moral behaviour: that which pleases, helps, or is approved of
- Intentions are now judged - “meaning well”
- Being “nice” is important
Stage 4: Social-Order Maintaining Morality
- Consider the perspective of the will of society in reflection of the law
- What is right conforms to the rules of legal authority
- Belief that the rules and laws maintain social order which is worth preserving
- No longer fear punishment
Level 3: Postconventional (Principled) Morality highest level of moral reasoning in
which right and wrong are defined in principles of justice that may conflict written laws or
authority figures. What is morally right and legally proper not always the same.
Stage 5: The Social-Contract Orientation
- View laws as instrument of expressing the will of human welfare
- Laws that accomplish human welfare are impartially applied and viewed as social
contracts that are we are obligated to follow
- Imposed laws that compromise human rights/dignity are worthy of a challenge
- Distinctions between what is moral and what is legal appear
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Document Summary

Internalization the process of adopting the attributes or standards of other people taking these standards as one"s own. Adapt what they learn and conform to these ideals. Crucial milestone along the road to moral maturity. Moral affect affective, or emotional, component that consists of the feelings (guilt, concern for others" feelings, etc. ) that surround right or wrong actions and that motivate moral thoughts and action. Moral reasoning cognitive component centres on the way we conceptualize right and wrong and makes decisions about how to behave. Moral behaviour behavioural component that reflects how we actually behave when we experience the temptation to violate moral rules. Affective component of moral development moral affect. Oedipal morality moral development that occurs during the phallic period at ages 3 6 when children internalize the moral standards of the same-sex parent as they resolve their oedipus and electra conflict. Newer ideas about the early development of the conscience.

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