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Chapter 14

PSYC 2450 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Information Processing, Stereotype, Prenatal Care


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2450
Professor
Anneke Olthof
Chapter
14

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DevelopmentaPssychologChhapte144
1
DefiniSeaand
nd
Gender
Sex
o
A person
s biological identity
§.
Chromosomes, physical identity, and hormones
Gender
o
A person
s social and cultural identity
Genderololsttandards
GendeRololStaandards
o
Behaviour, value, or motive a society considers more appropriate for a specific
sex
§.
Expressive role
Social prescription, usually directed toward females, that one
should be cooperative, kind, nurturnant, and sensitive to the
needs of others
o
Typical female
§.
Instrumental role
Social prescription, usually directed towards males, that one
should be dominant, independent, assertive, competitive, and
goal oriented
o
Typical male
Gendetypyping
o
Process by which children acquire gender roles
Sex
Differences
Smalbuureeliablpssychologicadiifferencebeetweeseexes
o
Verbal ability
§.
Girls have better verbal abilities than boys
§.
Develop verbal skills at an earlier age

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§.
Display verbal advantage son tests of reading comprehension and speech
fluency
§.
Females outscore males on math tests that require verbal strategies
o
Visual / spatial abilities
§.
Abilititmenentally
manipulate
oottherwise
drainfferenceaboupicictoriainfformation

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DevelopmentaPssychologChhapte144
§.
Boys outperform girls on tests of visual spatial abilities
Mental rotation
asked to choose responses that show the
standard in different orientation
Spatial perception
subjects asked to pick the tilted bottle that
has horizontal water line
o
Mathematical ability
§.
In adolescence boys show advantage over girls on tests of arithmetic
reasoning
§.
Girls exceed boys in computational skills
§.
Boys have more problem solving skills beat girls in geometry and math
section of SAT
§.
Male advantage apparent among math high achievers
More males than females exceptionally talented in math
o
Aggression
§.
Overt versus covert
§.
Boys more physically and verbally aggressive than girls as early as age 2
§.
Girls more likely to display covert forms of hostility
Snubbing or ignoring them, undermine their relationships or
social status
Otheposossiblseediifferences
o
Activity level
§.
Boys more physically active than girls (even before born!)
§.
Remain more active through childhood especially socially
High reactivity might explain why they play rough tumble
o
Fear, timidity, and risk-taking
§.
As early as 1 girls appear more fearful or timid in uncertain situations
compared to boys
§.
More cautious less assertive, take fewer risks
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