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Chapter 14

Developmental Chapter 14 (1).txt

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PSYC 2450
Anneke Olthof

DevelopmentaPssychologChhapte144 1 DefiniSeaand nd Gender Sex o A persons biological identity §. Chromosomes, physical identity, and hormones Gender o A persons social and cultural identity Genderololsttandards GendeRololStaandards o Behaviour, value, or motive a society considers more appropriate for a specific sex §. Expressive role ▯ Social prescription, usually directed toward females, that one should be cooperative, kind, nurturnant, and sensitive to the needs of others o Typical female §. Instrumental role ▯ Social prescription, usually directed towards males, that one should be dominant, independent, assertive, competitive, and goal oriented o Typical male Gendetypyping o Process by which children acquire gender roles Sex Differences Smalbuureeliablpssychologicadiifferencebeetweeseexes o Verbal ability §. Girls have better verbal abilities than boys §. Develop verbal skills at an earlier age §. Display verbal advantage son tests of reading comprehension and speech fluency §. Females outscore males on math tests that require verbal strategies o Visual / spatial abilities §. Abilititmenentally manipulate oottherwise drainfferenceaboupicictoriainfformation DevelopmentaPssychologChhapte144 §. Boys outperform girls on tests of visual spatial abilities ▯ Mental rotatio▯asked to choose responses that show the standard in different orientation ▯ Spatial percepti▯onubjects asked to pick the tilted bottle that has horizontal water line o Mathematical ability §. In adolescence boys show advantage over girls on tests of arithmetic reasoning §. Girls exceed boys in computational skills §. Boys have more problem solving skills beat girls in geometry and math section of SAT §. Male advantage apparent among math high achievers ▯ More males than females exceptionally talented in math o Aggression §. Overt versus covert §. Boys more physically and verbally aggressive than girls as early as age 2 §. Girls more likely to display covert forms of hostility ▯ Snubbing or ignoring them, undermine their relationships or social status Otheposossiblseediifferences o Activity level §. Boys more physically active than girls (even before born!) §. Remain more active through childhood especially socially ▯ High reactivity might explain why they play rough tumble o Fear, timidity, and risk-taking §. As early as 1 girls appear more fearful or timid in uncertain situations compared to boys §. More cautious less assertive, take fewer risks o Developmental vulnerability §. From conception boys are more physically vulnerable than girls to prenatal and perinatal hazards and effects of disease §. Boys more likely to display developmental problems o Emotional expressivity/sensitivity §. As infants boys and girls are similar emotionally §. Toddler boys are more likely to display anger §. 2 year old girls use more emotion related words than boys §. Girls and boys similar in nurture in adulthood and childhood §. Empathy evident in males and females o Compliance §. Preschool period girls more compliant than boys to parents, teachers, authority figures §. Boys more likely to resort to demanding or controlling strategies in persuasion Culturamytyths o Sociability, suggestibility o Differences in logical and analytical ability Developmental Psychology Chapter 14 3 Influence on culture: o Impact of expectations on ability and vocational opportunities §. Self fulfilling prophecy ▯ Phenomenon whereby people cause others to act in accordance with expectations they have about those others ▯ Parental expectations (home influences) o May contribute by treating sons/daughters differently o Find parental expectations about sex differences become self-fulfilling prophesies o Parents influenced by gender types expect sons to outperform daughters in math o Credit sons success in math to ability and daughters to hard work §. Reinforces that girls lack math talent performance only through effort o Because girls then think they lack ability they become less interested in math less likely to pursue mathematic futures ▯ Teacher▯s expectations (Scholastic Influences) o Teachers stereotyped abilities of boys and girls in certain subjects o Grade 6 math teachers believe boys have more math ability than girls but girls try harder Development of Gender Typing Three aspects of gender typing: o Research has focused on three separate but interrelated topics o Gender identity §. On▯s awareness of one▯s gender and its implications (knowledge one is either boy or a girl and that gender is an unchanging attribute) o Gender role stereotypes §. Ideas about what males and females are supposed to be like o Gender-typed patterns of behaviour §. Childs tendency to favour same-sex activities over those normally associated with the other sex Steps in gender identity development o Step 1: Discriminate males from females §. And put oneself into one of these categories §. By age 4 infants already begun to match male and female voices with faces in tests of intermodal perception o Step 2: Labeling males and females Developmenta Psycholog Chapte 14 4 §. By age 2 and 3 children can tell what they know about gender as they acquire words like mummy and daddy later on boy and girl §. 2.5 to 3 can accurately label themselves as boys or girls o 3. Sex as a permanent attribute §. 3 to 5 still think boys can become mommies or girls daddies, or changing clothes or hair becomes a member of the opposite sex §. 5 to 7 begin to understand sex is unchanging attribute Developmengeeender-­-rolsttereotypes o Stereotyping evident at ages 2-3 years o Psychological discrimination later o Ages 3-7 strict conformists to stereotypes o Gender intensification in adolescence §. Came hard on boys who would dress like girls §. Greater pressure put on boys to conform to gender roles o Cultural influences §. 8-10 year olds in western individualistic societies becoming more flexible with violations to gender stereotypes §. Pattern may not be apparent elsewhere ▯ Taiwan emphasis on maintaining social harmony and living up to social expectations ▯ Children strongly encourages to accept and conform to appropriate gender role prescriptions o Taiwanese 8-10 year olds less accepting of gender role violations §. Gender Intensification: magnification of sex differences early in adolescence; associated with increased pressure to conform to traditional gender roles as one reaches puberty. ▯ As reaches puberty mothers become more involved with girls and fathers more involved with boys Developmengeeendetypypebeehaviour - Figurinouuwhhayosshhouldggiv ▯reyou maale ofememale o Gender segregation §. Childre▯s tendency to associate with same sex playmates and to think of the other sex as the out-group ▯ Boys with boys, girls with girls ▯ Usually because of o Play styles / activity levels ▯ Children who violate gender segregation tend to be less popular and less well adjusted o Girls and cross-sex activities in childhood §. 4-10 year old girls more likely to remain interested in sports and male types activities compared to how boys would react to girl typed activities o Adolescent gender intensification ▯ 10-11 year olds who insist of clear gender boundaries and avoid opposite sex tend to be viewed as socially competent and popular o More socially acceptable DevelopmentaPssychologChhapte144 5 o Culture assigns greater status to male role §. Explains why females would be more acceptable to do male type things but not vice versa TheorieGendendendeTyyping Evolutionary Theory -Men and women have different evolutionary pressures and thus created different traits between males and females and gender divisions between labour o Natural selection o Adaptive pressures §. Men evolved to be more assertive and competitive because they carry roles as protectors in families §. Females give birth, breast feed, nurture, sensitive, kind, emotional to feel the needs of others. The combination of both gives the child the best shot of survival o Applies mainly to sex differences o Does not explain cultural differences §. Social roles hypothesis ▯ Psychological sex differences do not reflect biologically evolved dispositions o They emerge because of variations in roles that cultures assign to men and women §. (Home maker and provider) o Agreed upon socialization practices to promote traits in boys and girls §. (Assertion vs. nurturance) o Does▯t explain the gender typing of how we raise children to be their designated sex, society decides what your like and the evolutionary theor▯ yt oesnunt for it BiosociaThheory (Money anEhhrhardt) o Focus on biological forces that affect gender typing §. As well as social forces, if born with xx or xy on top of how the society raises you these factors combined decide what gender you will grow up with. §. Testicular feminization
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