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Chapter 1

Chapter 1.docx

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PSYC 2450
Scott Brandon

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Chapter 1: Studying A Child’s World The Study of Child Development Then and Now  Child development: Scientific study of processes of change and stability from conception through adolescence  Quantitative Change: Change In number or amount, such as in height, weight, or size of vocabulary  Qualitative Change: Change in kind, structure, or organization, such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication  Along with changes such as these, people show an underlying stability, in aspects of personality and behaviour. Early Approaches  Forerunners of the scientific study of child development were baby biographies, Journals kept to record the early development of a single child.  Charles Darwin: first emphasized developmental nature of infant behaviour. Darwin published an abstract of his notes on his son’s sensory, cognitive and emotional development during the first 12 months. Developmental Psychology Becomes a Science  The new science of psychology taught that people could understand themselves by learning what had influenced them as children  Adolescence was not considered a separate period of development until the early 20 century, when G. Stanley Hall published a popular book called Adolescence.  In Canada, early research in child development began with James Baldwin and his student, including Frederick Tracy, in the late 1800s, who focused on mental development in childhood.  Developmental science is disciplinary. Studying the Lifespan  Blatz developed the laboratory school for the Dionne Quintuplets, the first known set of identical quintuplets; however, the ethics of quintuplets’ lack of privacy and freedom to withdraw have been questioned. New Frontiers  The traditional distinction between basic research, the kind undertaken purely in a spirit of intellectual inquiry, and applied research, which addresses a practical problem, is becoming less meaningful. The Study of Child Development: Basic Concepts 3 Domains  Physical development: Growth of body and brain, including patterns of change in sensory capacities, motor skills and health  Cognitive Development: Pattern of change in mental abilities, such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning and creativity  Psychosocial Development: Pattern of change in emoyions, personality, and social relationships Periods of Development  Social Construction: concept about the nature of reality, based on societally shared perceptions or assumptions th  In industrial societies until the early 20 century, young people were considered children until they left school, married or got a job, and enters the adult world.  By the 1920s, with the establishment of comprehensive high schools to meet the needs of a growing economy and with more families able to support extended formal education for their children.  In Some preindustrial societies, the concept of adolescence still does not exist. Typical Major Developments in 5 periods of Child Development Age period Physical Cognitive Psychosocial Developments Developments Developments Prenatal Period -Conception -Abilities to learn (Conception to -Basic body and remember and Birth) structure and to respond to organs form sensory stimuli and developing Infancy and -All senses and -Abilities to learn -Attachments to Toddlerhood body systems and remember are parents and others (birth to age 3) operate at brith to present, even in form varying degrees early weeks Self-awareness -The brain grows -Use of symbols develops in complexity and and ability to solve -Shift from is highly sensitive problems dependence to to environmental -Comprehension autonomy occurs influence and use of -interest in other -physical language children increases development of development motor skills Early Childhood -Growth is steady; -Thinking is -Self concept and (3 to 6) appearance somewhat understanding becomes more egocentric, but emotions become slender and understanding of more complex proportions more other peoples -Independence, adultlike perspectives self-control -appetite grows. -Gender identity diminishes, and -Cognitive develops sleep problems are immaturity leads -Altruism, common to some illogical aggression and ideas about the fearfulness are world common -Memory and language improve Middle Childhood -Growth slows -Egocentrism -Self-concept (6 to 11) -strength and diminishes become more athletic skills -children begin to complex improve think logically but -Coregulation Respitory illnesses concretely reflects gradual are common -Memory and shift in control language skills from parents to increase child Peers assume central importance Adolescence (11 -Phsycial growth -Ability to think -Search for identity to about 20 and other changes abstractly and use -Relationships with years) are rapid scientific reasoning parents are good -Reproductive -Immature -Peer groups help maturity occurs thinking persists in develop and test Major health risks some behaviour self-concept but areas -education focuses also may exert an on preparation for anti-social university influence  Certain basic needs must be met and certain tasks must be mastered for normal development to occurs Influences on Development  Individual differences: differences among children in characteristics, influences, or developmental outcomes. Heredity, Environment, and Maturation  Heredity: inborn influences or traits inherited from biological parents (nature)  Environment: Totality of nonhereditary, or experiential, influences on development (Nurture)  Maturation: Unf
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