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Chapter 2

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PSYC 2450
Jennifer Mc Taggart

Unit 1: Entering A Child’s World (Chapters 1 and 2) Part 2 Margaret Mead  Studied girls’ adjustment to adolescence and challenged accepted views about inevitability of teenage rebellion  Also focused on how cultures define male and female roles  Was a pioneer in cross cultural research o “through the accidents of history, these cultures [have] developed so differently from ours that knowledge of them could shed a kind of light upon us, our potentialities and our limitations.”  Key elements of Mead’s story o Study of child development is not dry, cross cultural perspective can reveal which patterns of behaviour are universal and which are not, theory and research are two sides of the same coin Basic Theoretical Issues  Theory: set of logically related concepts or statements which seek to describe or explain development and predict behaviour under certain conditions o Are a rich source of hypotheses o Change to incorporate new findings  The way theorists explain development depends on two issues… Are Children Active or Passive in their Development?  John Locke o Said children were blank slate that society “writes” on  Jean Jacques Rousseau o Children are born noble savages and develop according to own positive natural tendencies unless corrupted by society  Both were too simplistic and led to two contrasting models o Mechanistic Model of Development (Locke)  People are like machines that react to environmental input, if we know enough about how human machine is put together and about internal and external forces, we can predict behaviour  Seeks to identify factors that make people act the way they do o Organismic Model of Development (Rousseau)  People are active, growing organisms that set their own development into motion, they initiate not just react, environmental factors can speed up or slow development but do not cause it Is Development Continuous or Does it Occur in Stages?  Mechanistic o See development as continuous, focus on quantitative changes  Organismic o Focus on qualitative changes, development is a set of distinct stages and at each stage people cope with and develop different abilities and problems, each stage builds from next A Shifting Balance  Most early theorists favoured organismic approach  Today much focus is on looking to see what behaviour is continuous and what shows lack of continuity  Find that influences are bi-directional - people change their world even as it changes them Theoretical Perspectives Psychoanalytic  Development is shaped by unconscious forces that motivate behaviour Sigmund Freud (Psychosexual Theory)  Believed people are born with biological drives that must be redirected to make it possible to live in society (we are passive in our development)  Concluded sources of emotional disturbances are rooted in repressed traumatic childhood experiences  Used clinical observation  Three parts of personality o Id - unconscious instinctual drives, seeks immediate gratification under pleasure principle, newborns are governed by id o Ego - conscious self, develops in first year, operates under reality principle, tries to find middle ground between id and superego’s demands o Superego - develops at 5 or 6, contains conscience, incorporates “should” and “should not”, highly demanding and if not satisfied might make person feel guilty  Personality forms through unconscious conflicts between inborn urges of id and requirements of civilized life - conflicts occur at 5 stages (believed development was stage oriented) o Oral - birth to 12-18 months, mouth is main source of pleasure o Anal - 12-18 months to 3 years, toilet training is important, sensual gratification from expelling and withholding poop o Phallic - 3 - 6 years, becomes attached to parent of opposite sex and then identifies with same sex parent, zone of gratification is genitals  Oedipus Complex: boys develop desire for mom and aggressive urges towards dad  Penis Envy: girls wish to possess penis and power it stands for o Latency - 6 - puberty, time of calm between stages o Genital - puberty through adulthood, re-emergence of impulses from phallic stage, any repressed sexual urges from phallic stage resurface  First three stages crucial for personality development - receive too much or too little gratification can lead to fixation (arrest in development that shows in personality) o Babies needs not met in oral stage - becomes nail biter  Freud made us aware of importance of unconscious thoughts, feelings and motivations, role of experience in forming personality, role of mental representations of self and others in establishment of intimate relationships Erik Erikson (Psychosocial Theory)  Used clinical observation, believed development was stage oriented and that the individual was active in their development  Said that ego development was life long process  8 stages and each has crisis (“competing tendencies) and each must be satisfactorily resolved for healthy ego development o Basic trust vs. Mistrust - birth to 12-18 months, is world good or bad place, virtue: hope o Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - 12-18 months to 3, virtue: will o Initiative vs. Guilt - 3 to 6, virtue: purpose o Industry vs. Inferiority - 6 to puberty, learn skills of culture or face incompetence, virtue: skill o Identity vs. Identity Confusion - puberty to young adult, virtue: fidelity o Intimacy vs. Isolation - young adult, virtue: love o Generativity vs. Stagnation - middle adulthood, establish and guide next generation or feel personal impoverishment, virtue: care o Integrity vs. Despair - late adulthood, virtue: wisdom  Emphasizes social and cultural influences Learning  Development results from a change in behaviour based on experience or adaptation to the environment  See learning as continuous and focus on quantitative changes Behaviouralism  Observed behaviour is a predictable response to experience  Development is continuous and individual is passive in their development  Focuses on associative learning - mental link is formed between 2 events o Classical Conditioning  Response (salvation) to stimulus (bell) is evoked after repeated association with a stimulus that normally elicits that response (food) - Pavlov  John B. Watson and Little Albert - fear of furry white objects after being paired with loud sound  Learning what events go together allow children to anticipate what is going to happen and makes world more orderly o Operant Conditioning  Individual learns from operating something in environment and involves voluntary behaviour  B.F. Skinner  Reinforcement - process which a behaviour is strengthened, increasing likelihood behaviour will be repeated in future o Positive reinforcement - getting something and behaviour increasing o Negative reinforcement - removing something and behaviour increasing  Punishment - process which behaviour is weakened, decreasing likelihood of repetition o Positive punishment - getting something and behaviour decreasing o Negative punishment - removing something and behaviour decreasing  Most effective when delivered right after operant behaviour  Behavioural modification - used to eliminate bad or instill good behaviour  Does not adequately address individual and cultural differences and influences Social Learning (Social Cognitive) Theory  Development is continuous and individuals are both passive and active  Children observe and imitate models  Albert Bandura o Reciprocal Determinism - the child acts on the world as the world acts on the child o Modeling or Observational Learning - people learn appropriate social behaviour by observing and imitating models o Cognitive processes are at work when people observe - learn chucks of behaviour and then mentally put the chunks together into complex new behaviour patterns  Specific behaviour people imitate depends on values of culture  Through feedback we form standards of judging our own actions and become more selective in choosing models Cognitive Jean Piaget’s Cognitive-Stage Theory  Viewed development organismically - development is product of child’s efforts to understand and act on their world  Looked at children’s wrong answers, children are active in their development  Cognitive development beings with inborn ability to adapt to the environment  Occurs in 4 stages o Sensorimotor - organize activities in relation to environment through sensory and motor activity o Pre-operational - develops representation system and uses symbols, language and imaginative play are important, thinking is not logical o Concrete Operations - can solve problems logically, focused on here and now, cannot think abstractly o Formal Operations - can think abstractly, deal with hypothetical  Cognitive growth occurs in 3 areas o Organization - creating increasingly complex cognitive structures  Schemes: organized patterns of behaviour that a person uses to think about and act in a situation o Adaptation - handling new information in light of what you already know  Assimilation: new info incorporated into existing schemes  Accommodation: modifying cognitive structure to include new information o Equilibrium - striving for balance, dictates a shift from assimilation to accommodation  Underestimated the abilities of infants and young children Lev Vygostsky’s Socio-cultural Theory  Focused on social and cultural processes that guide children’s cognitive development  Stresses children’s active engagement with their environment - cognitive growth is collaborative process o Shared activities help children internalize their society’s modes of thinking and behaving  O
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