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Chapter 9

Developmental Psych Chapter 9

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Jennifer Mc Taggart

A Child’s World Chapter 9 Summary (pages 227-237) Physical Development and Health in Early Childhood: Aspects of Physiological Development:  in early childhood children slim down and shoot up  they need less sleep than before and are more likely to develop sleep problems  they improve in motor skills Bodily Growth and Change  at about age 3, children begin to slender and take on an athletic appearance  the trunk, arms and legs grow longer  body begins to proportion itself  both boys and girls tend to grow 5 to 8 cm a year during childhood and gain 2 to 3 kg annually  the changes in appearance reflect developments inside the body  muscular and skeletal growth progresses and cartilage turns into bone at a faster rate than before Nutrition: Preventing overweight  as a child. Proper growth and health depend on good nutrition and adequate sleep  preschoolers are more likely to become overweight than infants and toddlers especially if they are not active  beginning at age 2, a healthy diet is the same as for adults: primarily fruits and vegetable, whole grains, low-fat and non-fat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats  pre schoolers eat less in proportion to their size than infants do; as growth slows, they need fewer calories per kilo of body weight  according to Canadian Paediatric Society, a quarter of Canadian children are obese, and the major contributing factors are poor diet and lack of exercise  young people of all ages eat too much fat and sugar and few servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy and lean meats  another potential consequence of a poor diet is iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia  this affects over 10% of children 18 months of age  to prevent this, iron-fortified cereals, formula, and other iron rich foods are recommended by the Canadian Paediatric Society for infants after 6 months of age  between 1981 and 1996, the prevalence of childhood obesity in Canada tripled  worldwide, an estimated 22 million children under the age of 5 are obese  a tendency toward obesity can be hereditary, but the main factors are environmental Encouraging Healthy Eating Habits:  keep a record of what the child eats  serve simple, easily identifiable foods  serve finger foods as often as possible  introduce only one new food at a time, along with a familiar one that a child likes  offer small servings Helping children go to sleep:  establish a regular, unrushed bedtime routine  allow no scary or loud television shows  avoid highly stimulating, active play before bedtime  keep on a small night light Helping Children go back to sleep:  if a child gets up during the night, take him/her back to bed and speak calmly  after a nightmare, reassure a frightened child and occasionally check on child  after night terrors, do not wake the child  walk or carry a sleepwalking child back to bed Malnutrition:  40% of food-bank users in Canada are children under 18 years of age  Children experiencing malnutrition may negatively affect not only growth and physical well-being but cognitive and psychosocial development as well  In an analysis of data on a nationally representative sample of 3,286 six-11-year olds, those whose families had insufficient food were more likely to do poorly on arithmetic tests, to have repeated a grade, to have seen a psychologist, and to have difficulty getting along with other children  Effects of malnutrition on growth can be largely reversed with improved diet  The most effective treatments go beyond physical care  Early education may help counter the effects of undernourishment Oral Health:  By age 3, all the primary teeth are in place  The permanent teeth, which will begin to appear at age 6, are developing  Use of fluoride and improved dental care have dramatically reduced the incidence of tooth decay since the 1970’s  But disadvantaged children still have more untreated cavities than other children  The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends parents use fluoride supplements for children 6 months of age and older in areas that do not fluoridate the water supply  Also limit the amount of toothpaste used in order to avoid fluorosis  Fluorosis results in pitting and brown staining of the teeth, particularly in the first 6 months  Tooth decay in early childhood often stems from over-consumption of sweetened milk and juices in infancy, together with lack of regular dental care  A common source of early childhood tooth decay is going to bed with a bottle of milk, juice, or formula Sleep P
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