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Chapter 12

Developmental Psych Chapter 12

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Jennifer Mc Taggart

Chapter 12 Notes for Developmental Psychology -terry fox overcame great disabilities -middle childhood important for development of strength, stamina, endurance, motor proficiency needed for active sports -healthy time for children Aspects of Physical Development - Height and Weight • € Growth during middle childhood slows considerably • € School age children grow 2-7cm/year • € Gain 2-4kg or more/year- doubling their average body weight • € Girls put on more fatty tissue then boys • 10 year olds weigh 5kg more than kids 40 years ago € Aboriginal children tend to be heavier and grow at a faster rate • • 40% b/w age 2-17 are overweight or obese • height of aboriginal children are the same rate as non aboriginal doctors use standard growth charts for all children • - some children aren’t growing enough • € synthetic growth hormone will be administered if not enough is produced- can result in rapid growth in height especially during first 2 years • € However, children who are producing growth normally, but shorter than other children, are also being prescribed growth hormone. • € Only increases height by 2.5-5cm, and taken for 4-7 years • some children show no response • fairly new, don’t know long term effects yet, could lead to psychological damage if height not fulfilled Tooth Development and Dental Care • € Most adult teeth arrive in middle childhood • € Fall out around age 6, lose 4 teeth per year for five years now more children are getting cavities filled, improvements across ethnic and • socioeconomic lines • improvement w/ use of adhesive sealants on the rough, chewing surfaces Brain Development • € Less dramatic than in infancy • € Loss in density of grey matter (closely packed neuronal bodies) in certain regions of the cerebral cortex • pruning of unused dendrites balanced by increase of white matter, axons (nerve fibers that transmit information b/w neurons to regions of the brain) • € Myelination begins at frontal lobe and moves back • € Thickening of the cortex of the temporal and frontal cortex (5-11 years) -these connections thicken and myelinate from the frontal lobes and moving toward the rear of the brain -age 6-13 growth in connections b/w temporal and parietal lobes which deal w/ sensory functions, language and spatial understanding -white matter growth ends at the end of the critical period for language learning -->this all increases the speed and efficiency of brain processes -the loss of grey matter occurs from the back to the front of the brain -age 4-8 decline in grey matter to do w/ basic sensory and motor activity, 11-13, move into parietal lobes involved in attention, language and spatial orientation, then in late adolescence prefrontal cortex that control reasoning and other higher order functions -scientists also measure brain development by changes in thickness of the cortex -happens b/w 5-11 years in temporal and frontal lobes that handle language -at same time there is thinning in rear portion of frontal and parietal cortex in left hemisphere -correlates w/ improved performance on vocab portion of intelligence test -corpus callosum, progressive myelination of fibres leads to more rapid transmission of info b/w the 2 hemispheres -age 3-15, front to back growth pattern -3-6 most rapid growth in frontal areas that regulate planning and organizing of actions -6-11 most rapid growth in thinking, language and spatial relations, growth slows 11-15 which coincides w/ end of critical period proposed for learning a new language - 6-17 boys showed greater loss in grey matter and growth in white mattter and corpus callosum fibres than girls Nutrition and Sleep Nutritional Needs -schoolchildren need 2400 calories a day, more for older, less for younger ones -breakfast should be 1/4th of calories -grains, fruits, veges, high in natural nutrients, no more than 30% as fat, 10% saturated fat -canadian children eat too much fat and sugar -found no negative effects on height, weight, body mass or neurological development from a moderately low fat diet a this age -should have limited fruit juice and sweetened beverages -as children grow, more pressure for unhealthy eating habits -get at least 1 third of their calories from snacks, sweetened beverages -nutrition education in schools and parental education and changes in school lunch menus can be helpful -changes in food labeling, tax unhealthy foods, restrictions on food ads directed to children, require restaurants to list nutrition info on their menus are among recommendations to encourage healthy nutrition Sleep Patterns and Problems • € 11 hours at age 5 • € 10 hours at age 9 • € 9 hours at age 13 • many children get less sleep than they need • 5th graders get 9 1/2 hours when should get 10-11 • as get older, 1 in 4 kids get less sleep on weekends -since children not allowed to se their own bedtimes, resistance to going to bed, insomnia, and daytime sleepiness are common -children w/ tv in their rooms get less sleep -older kids get less sleep than younger, tend to be more drowsiness and more likely to fall asleep during the day -girls slept better than boys, family stress associated w/ lower sleep quality -parents and children are unaware of their sleeping problems yet they all report symptoms of it -problem declines b/w preschool and school age but early problems predict later ones • € Children with sleep problems often have allergies, ear infections, and hearing problems. • € They can also be linked to behavioral and psychological problems Motor Development and Physical Play -children in non literate socieites go to work, in north america are spending less time outside, • € School activities like reselling – promote growth in agility, social competence, and foster adjustment to school. • € About 10% of children’s play at recess con
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