Textbook Notes (362,766)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (3,256)
PSYC 2450 (262)
Chapter 2


6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 2: Theories of Human Development  Theory – a set of concepts and propositions designed to organize, describe, and explain an existing set of observations o Parsimony – a theory that uses relatively few explanatory principles to explain a broad set of observations o Falsifiability – a theory that is capable of generating predictions that could be disconfirmed o Heuristic value – a theory that continues to stimulate new research and discoveries The Psychoanalytic Viewpoint Freud’s Psychosexual Theory  Relied on hypnosis, free association, dream analysis o Repressed, unconscious motives  3 components of personality o Id: driven by instincts o Ego: rational (balance) o Superego: one’s internalized moral standards  Stages: o Birth-1 year: Oral o 1-3 years: Anal o 3-6 years: Phallic o 6-11 years: Latency o 12+ years: Genital  Strong encouragement or discouragement can cause the child to fixate on a stage  Criticism: o Not much evidence for stage conflicts  Contribution: o Concept of unconscious motivation Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development  Stressed that children are active rather than passive to their environment  Less emphasis on sexual urges, more emphasis on cultural influences  8 life crises: o Birth-1 year: Basic trust vs mistrust o 1-3 years: Autonomy vs shame and doubt o 3-6 years: Initiative vs guilt o 6-12 years: Industry vs inferiority o 12-20 years: Identity vs role confusion o 20-40 years: Intimacy vs isolation o 40-65 years: Generativity vs stagnation o Old age: Ego integrity vs despair  Criticism: vague about the causes of development  Contribution: focuses on our rational, adaptive nature; social conflicts and personal dilemmas Beyond Freud and Erikson  Karen Horney: Founder of the psychology of women  Alfred Adler: Siblings contribute to social and personality development  Harry Stack Sullivan: How same-sex friendships during middle childhood set the stage for intimate love relationships later in life The Learning Viewpoint Watson’s Behaviourism  Children are blank slates  Habits – well-learned associations between stimuli and responses that represent the stable aspects of one’s personality  Treat children as young adults Skinner’s Operant Learning Theory (Radical Behaviourism)  Operant learning – voluntary acts (or operants) become either more or less probable, depending on the consequences they produce  Reinforce – any desirable consequence of an act that increases the probability that the act will recur  Punisher – any consequence of an act that suppresses that act and/or decreases the probability that it will recur Bandura’s Cognitive Social Learning Theory  Humans are cognitive beings and actions are based on what we think will happen  Observational learning – results from observing the behaviour of others  Children are active in their development Social Learning as Reciprocal Determinism  Environmental determinism – Children are passive creatures who are molded by their environments  Reciprocal determinism – the flow of influence between children and their environments is a two-way street; the environment may affect the child, but the child’s behaviour also influences the environment Contributions and Criticisms of Learning Theories  Contribution: o A wealth of information about developing children and adolescents o How and why children form emotional attachments, adopt gender roles, make friends, learn to abide by moral rules o Important clinical insights and practical applications  Behavioural modification techniques  Criticisms o Too simple o Genetics offer a plausible reason for individuality o Only studying children and adolescents in their natural setting can we understand them o Too little attention to cognitive influences o Cognitive development – age-related changes that occur in mental activities such as attending, perceiving, learning, thinking, and remembering The Cognitive-Developmental Viewpoint Piaget’s View of Intelligence and Intellectual Growth  No inborn knowledge  Scheme – an organized pattern of thought or action that a child constructs to make sense of some aspect of his or her experience  Assimilation – the process by which children interpret new experiences by incorporating them into their existing schemes  Disequilibrium – imbalances or contradictions between an individual’s thought processes and environmental events  Accommodation – the process by which children modify their existing schemes in order to incorporate or adapt to new experiences  Invariant developmental sequence – a series of developments that occur in one particular order because each development in the sequence is a prerequisite for the next o Birth-2 years: Sensorimotor  Use sensory and motor capabilities o 2-7 years: Preoperational  Use symbolism o 7-11 years: Concrete operations  Acquire and use cognitive operations o 11+ years: Formal operations  Systematic and abstract thought  Contribution o Children’s thinking o Linking moral and cognitive development
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2450

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.