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Chapter 10


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PSYC 2450
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 10  What is intelligence? o Psychometric views  Intelligence as a trait  Binet’s singular component approach  Constructed tests to determine mental age of children  Tests were based on skills needed for classroom learning: attention, perception, memory, numerical reasoning, verbal comprehension, etc.  Used to determine school curriculum to accommodate normal and retarded children  Multicomponent view  Use of factor analysis on testing results o Identify tests that are highly correlated o Each factor represents a distinct mental ability  Early theories o Spearman  Intellectual performance has two aspects: general ability and specific ability o Thurstone  Found seven factors (general abilities): spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical reasoning, verbal meaning, word fluency, memory, and inductive reasoning  Later theories o Guilford  180 mental abilities – structure-of-intellect model  Classified cognitive tasks based on dimensions: content, operations, products o Cattell and Horn  Two dimensions  Fluid intelligence: relationships and problems solved through perception  Crystallized intelligence: relationships and problems solved with knowledge acquired through schooling or culture o Three-stratum theory  Pyramid, hierarchical model  General to specific o Modern Information-Processing Viewpoint  Sternberg  Triarchic theory:  Contextual component o Adapting to situations o Selecting compatible environments o Shaping environments  Experiential component o Response to novelty o Automatization (increasing efficiency of info processing with practice)  Info-processing (or componential) component o Knowledge, strategies, metacognition o Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences  Each component is linked to a particular part of the brain  Linguistic  Spatial  Logical-mathematical  Musical  Body-kinesthetic  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal  Naturalist  Spiritual/existential  How is Intelligence Measured? o Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale  Measures general intelligence and four factors: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, spatial reasoning, and short-term memory  IQ testing using test norms o Wechsler Scales  Intelligence test for ages 6-16  Measure of general intelligence and both verbal and performance intelligence o Newer Approaches  Kaufman assessment battery for children (K-ABC)  Nonverbal measure of fluid intelligence o Assessing Infants  Normal testing doesn’t work  Based on important developmental milestones: motor scale, mental scale, behaviour rating  Receive a DQ: does not predict later IQ but many predict performance in preschool  Stable IQ in adolescence to childhood IQ  What do Intelligence Tests Predict? o IQ as a predictor of scholastic achievement  0.5 correlation between child’s IQ and future IQ  Children with higher IQs tend to stay in school longer and move on to complete postsecondary  Critics: say that it tests scholastic performance because schooling increases IQ, it also focuses on group trends and may not apply to a given individual o IQ as a predictor of vocational outcomes  Clear relationship between IQ and occupational status  IQs vary considerably in every occupational group  Also a correlation between IQ and job performance: +0.5  Employers need to look beyond IQ scores due to different tacit (or practical) intelligence: the ability to size up everyday problems and solve them  Not related to IQ o IQ as a predictor of health, adjustment, and life satisfaction  Gifted  Children: o Exceptional in many respects o General good health o Better adjusted emotionally o More morally mature o Quick to take up leadership roles o More likely to feel socially isolated and depressed o Some adjustment problems  Adults: o Most are well-adjusted, living happy, healthy, and highly productive lives  Home environment contributes substantially to future outcomes and accomplishments  Mentally retarded children  Low genetic potential and unstimulating rearing environments  Can learn both academic and practical lessons in school  Can often work and live independently or with occasional help as adults  Generally had less favorable life outcomes  Lower incomes, less adequate housing, poorer social skills, and greater dependency on others  Most are generally satisfied  Factors that Influence IQ Scores o Evidence for heredity  Twin studies  Shared genes are correlated with IQ scores  Adoption studies  Children’s IQs more correlated with that of biological parents  A person
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