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PSYC 2450- CH 5.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Anneke Olthof

PSYC 2450- Ch 5: Birth and the Newborn’s Readiness for Life Childbirth and the Perinatal Environment Perinatal Environment- refers to the environment surrounding birth • Child birth is a three stage process First Stage of Birth- the period of the birth process lasting from the first regular uterine contractions until the cervix is fully dilated. Second Stage of Birth- the period of the birth process during which the fetus moves through the birth canal and emerges from the mother’s body (also called delivery) Third Stage of Birth- expulsion of the placenta (afterbirth) Apgar Test- used to assess the newborn’s heart rate, respiration, colour, muscle tone and reflexes- used to gauge perinatal stress and to determine whether a neonate requires immediate medical assistance. Neonatal BehaviouralAssessment Scale (NBAS)- a test that assesses the neonate’s neurological integrity and responsiveness to environmental stimuli. • Childbirth practices vary widely across cultures Natural and Prepared Childbirth- each involve a delivery in which physical and psychological preparations for the birth are stressed and medical assistance is minimized. • Now common in Western societies • Can lessen maternal stress • Home births are just as safe as hospital births as long as the mother is attended by a midwife or doctor. Cesarean Section- a surgical delivery of a baby through an incision made in the mother’s abdomen or uterus. The Social Environment Surrounding Birth- Emotional Bonding- the term used to describe the strong affectionate ties that parents may feel toward their infant; some theorists believe that the strongest bonding occurs shortly after birth during a sensitive period. • Mother may feel exhilarated • Father may be engrossed with newborns- support of fathers during pregnancy & childbirth makes a birth experience easier on the mother. • Lack of support from the father can contribute to post partum depression. Postpartum Depression- strong feelings of sadness, resentment, and despair that may appear shortly after childbirth and can linger for months. (for mothers) Engrossment- paternal analogue of maternal emotional bonding; used to describe fathers’fascination with their neonates, including their desire to touch, hold, caress and talk to the newborn baby. Birth Complications Anoxia- a lack of sufficient oxygen to the brain; may result in neurological damage or death • Happens to 1% of children- usually no long term effects. • Children with mild anoxia are often irritable at birth & may score below average for the first three years of their life Breech birt
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