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Chapter 14

PSYC 2450 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Social Prescribing, The Beat Room, Gender Identity


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2450
Professor
Anneke Olthof
Chapter
14

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Developmental+Psychology+Chapter+14+
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Defining'Sex'and'Gender!
Sex$
o A person’s biological identity
! Chromosomes, physical identity, and hormones
Gender
o A person’s social and cultural identity
Gender&role&standards!
Gender$Role$Standards$
o Behaviour, value, or motive a society considers more appropriate for a specific
sex
! Expressive role
Social prescription, usually directed toward females, that one
should be cooperative, kind, nurturnant, and sensitive to the
needs of others
o Typical female
! Instrumental role
Social prescription, usually directed towards males, that one
should be dominant, independent, assertive, competitive, and
goal oriented
o Typical male
Gender$typing$
o Process by which children acquire gender roles
Sex$Differences!
Small$but$reliable$psychological$differences$between$sexes$
o Verbal ability
! Girls have better verbal abilities than boys
! Develop verbal skills at an earlier age
! Display verbal advantage son tests of reading comprehension and speech
fluency
! Females outscore males on math tests that require verbal strategies
o Visual / spatial abilities
! !"#$#%#&'(%)(*&+%,$$-(*,+#./$,%&()0()%1&02#'&(30,2(#+4&0&+5&'(
,")/%(.#5%)0#,$(#+4)0*,%#)+(

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! Boys outperform girls on tests of visual spatial abilities
Mental rotation “asked to choose responses that show the
standard in different orientation
Spatial perception “subjects asked to pick the tilted bottle that
has horizontal water line
o Mathematical ability
! In adolescence boys show advantage over girls on tests of arithmetic
reasoning
! Girls exceed boys in computational skills
! Boys have more problem solving skills beat girls in geometry and math
section of SAT
! Male advantage apparent among math high achievers
More males than females exceptionally talented in math
o Aggression
! Overt versus covert
! Boys more physically and verbally aggressive than girls as early as age 2
! Girls more likely to display covert forms of hostility
Snubbing or ignoring them, undermine their relationships or
social status
Other$possible$sex$differences$
o Activity level
! Boys more physically active than girls (even before born!)
! Remain more active through childhood especially socially
High reactivity might explain why they play rough tumble
o Fear, timidity, and risk-taking
! As early as 1 girls appear more fearful or timid in uncertain situations
compared to boys
! More cautious less assertive, take fewer risks
o Developmental vulnerability
! From conception boys are more physically vulnerable than girls to
prenatal and perinatal hazards and effects of disease
! Boys more likely to display developmental problems
o Emotional expressivity/sensitivity
! As infants boys and girls are similar emotionally
! Toddler boys are more likely to display anger
! 2 year old girls use more emotion related words than boys
! Girls and boys similar in nurture in adulthood and childhood
! Empathy evident in males and females
o Compliance
! Preschool period girls more compliant than boys to parents, teachers,
authority figures
! Boys more likely to resort to demanding or controlling strategies in
persuasion
Cultural$myths$
o Sociability, suggestibility
o Differences in logical and analytical ability

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Influence$on$culture:$
o Impact of expectations on ability and vocational opportunities
! Self fulfilling prophecy
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,55)03,+5&(2#%1(&7.&5%,%#)+'(%1&-(1,8&(,")/%(%1)'&(
)%1&0'(
Parental expectations (home influences)
o May contribute by treating sons/daughters differently
o Find parental expectations about sex differences become
self-fulfilling prophesies
o Parents influenced by gender types expect sons to
outperform daughters in math
o Credit sons success in math to ability and daughters to
hard work
! Reinforces that girls lack math talent
performance only through effort
o Because girls then think they lack ability they become
less interested in math less likely to pursue mathematic
futures
Teachers’ expectations (Scholastic Influences)
o Teachers stereotyped abilities of boys and girls in certain
subjects
o Grade 6 math teachers believe boys have more math
ability than girls but girls try harder
Development*of*Gender*Typing!
Three$aspects$of$gender$typing:$
o Research has focused on three separate but interrelated topics
o Gender identity
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)+&(#'(&#%1&0(")-()0(,(;#0$(,+3(%1,%(;&+3&0(#'(,+(/+51,+;#+;(
,%%0#"/%&>(
o Gender role stereotypes
! Ideas about what males and females are supposed to be like
o Gender-typed patterns of behaviour
! Childs tendency to favour same-sex activities over those normally
associated with the other sex
Steps$in$gender$identity$development$
o Step 1: Discriminate males from females
! And put oneself into one of these categories
! By age 4 infants already begun to match male and female voices with
faces in tests of intermodal perception
o Step 2: Labeling males and females
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