Textbook Notes (367,974)
Canada (161,538)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2450 (267)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

6 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 2450
Nanita Mohan

11-09-18 10:10 PM Psyc 2450DE Chapter 2 Summary Basic Theoretical Issues What is a theory? • A set of logically related concepts or statements, which seks to describe and explain development and to predict what kinds of behaviour might occur under certain conditions. What is a hypothesis? • A possible explanation for phenomena, used to predict the outcome of research. - The way theorists explain development depends in part on the way they view two basic issues: • Whether children are active or passive in their own development. o John Locke – A young child is like a ‘blank slate’ on which society ‘writes’. (Mechanistic Model: People are like machines that react to environmental input E.g., Fill a car with gas, turn on ignition, accelerate, and car will move) o Jean Jacques Rousseau – Children are ‘noble savages’ who develop according to their own positive natural tendencies unless corrupted by society. (Organismic Model: Sees people as active, growing organisms that set their own development in motion. Development occurs in a sequence of qualitatively different stages) o We now know that both views are too simplistic and both are correct. • Whether development is continuous or occurs in stages. o Mechanistic theorists believe development is continuous, like walk or crawling up a ramp, predicting later behaviours from earlier ones. o Organismic theorists emphasize qualitative change and see development as occurring in a series of distinct stages, like stair steps. Each stage involved coping with different problems and developing abilities. Each stage builds on the previous and prepares child for next stage.  Most early theoretical pioneers believed in the Organismic -stage approach (Freud, Erikson, Piaget).  Mechanistic approach gained popularity in the 60s with the increasing popularity of Jo hn B. Watson’s learning theories.  Today much attention is focused on the biological and evolutionary bases of behaviour.  Developmental scientists today search for specific types of behaviour that show continuity or lack of continuity and what processes are involved in each.  Instead of being active or passive, today we believe we are bi-directional: people change their world even as the world changes them. Theoretical Perspectives Technique Stages Theoretical Important Basic Belief Causal Used Perspective Theories Emphasis? Psychoanalytic -Freud’s psychosexual -Behaviour is controlled by - Clinical - Yes -Innate factors Perspective theory (Passive) powerful unconscious urges. observation modified by (For both experience. -Erikson’s psychosocia-Personality is influenced btheories) -Interaction or theory (Active) society and develops through -Yes innate and a series of crises experiential factors Learning -Behaviourism, or - People are responders; Experimental -No -Experience Perspective traditional learning environment controls procedures (for theory (Pavlov, behaviour. both theories) Skinner, Watson) [Passive] -Social Learning -Children learn in a social -No -Experienced (social-cognitive) context by observing and modified by theory (Bandura) imitating models. innate factors [active and passive] Cognitive -Piaget’s cognitive- -Qualitative changes in -Flexible -Yes -Interaction of Perspective stage theory thought occur between interviews; innate and (Active) infancy & adolescence. meticulous experiential Person is active initiator oobservation factors (For both development theories) -Information -Human beings are -Lab research -No Processing Theory processors of symbols (Active and Passive) Co
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2450

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.