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Chapter

Psychosocial Development Year 1-3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2450
Professor
D E
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychosocial Development 13 YearsEmotions Subjective reactions to experience that are associated with physiological and behavioural changes 03 Months Infants are open to stimulation They begin to show interest and curiosity and they smile readily at people 36 Months Infants can anticipate what is about to happen and experience disappointment when it does not They show this by becoming angry or acting warily They smile coo and laugh often This is a time of social awakening and early reciprocal exchanges between the baby and the caregiver 69 Months Infants play social games and try to get responses from people They talk to touch and cajole other babies to get them to respond They express more differentiated emotions showing joy fear anger and surprise 912 Months Infants are intensely preoccupied with their principle caregiver may become afraid of strangers and act subdued in new situations By 1 year they communicate emotions more clearly showing moods ambivalence and graduations of feeling1218 Months Toddlers explore their environment using the people they are most attached to as a secure base As they master the environment they become more confident and more eager to assert themselves1836 Months Toddlers sometimes become anxious because they now realize how much they are separating from their caregiver They work out their awareness of their limitations in fantasy and in play and by identifying with adults Cultural influences the way people feel about a situation and the way they show their emotionsInfants cry when they want or need something Smile and coo when they feel socialInfants sense of control grows when they learn their cries bring help and comfort and their smiles bring smiles and laughter in return Crying 4 patterns of cryingHunger cry not always associated with hunger Angry cry a variation of rhythmic cry in which air is forced through the vocal cords Pain cry a sudden onset of loud crying without preliminary moaning sometimes followed by breath holding Frustration cry 2 or 3 drawn out cries with no prolonged breath holdingCrying can be a signal of a childs development Crying functions as a response to or a form of communication with the caregiver in a particular context such as indicating painReveals to the caregiver the severity of pain and effectiveness of pain relief
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