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Chapter 14

Developmental Psychology Chapter 14

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PSYC 2450

CH 14 Psychosocial Development in Middle ChildhoodThe Developing Self SelfConcept Development rdRepresentational System around age 7 or 8 3 stage of neoPiagetian stage of development Judgments about self become more realistic and balanced as children form broad inclusive selfconcepts that integrate various aspects of the self Can now compare their real self to their ideal self and how the measure up to social standards Contributes to the development of self esteem and global sense of selfSelf EsteemAccording to Erikson a children major determinant of selfesteem is their view of their capacity for productive workthIndustry vs Inferiority Eriksons 4 critical alternative of psychosocial development in which children must learn the productive skills their culture requires or else face feelings of inferiority Central issue of middle childhood Learn the virtue of competenceChildren must learn values of society May retreat for comfort from family neglect social relationships and become workaholicsParents strongly influence competenceEmotional GrowthBy age 78 children typically feel shame and pride and have a clearer idea of the difference between guilt and shameEmotions depend of awareness of implications of their actions and on what kind of socialization children have received affect their options of themselvesChildren can vocalize conflicting emotions By middle childhood children are aware of their cultures rules for emotional expression Children learn what make them angry fearful or sad and how other people react to display of emotionsEmotional selfregulation involves control of emotions attention and behavior Children low in this may become angry frustrated when interrupted or prevented from doing something they want to do May predict later behavioural problems ProSocial Behaviour Prosocial children tend to act appropriately in social situations to be relatively free from negative emotion and to cope with problems constructivelyWhen a parents acknowledges the childs distress they help them deal with the source of the distressfoster empathy prosocial development and social skillsWhen parents disapprove with punishment emotions such as anger and fear may become more intense and may impair social adjustment or the child may become secretive and anxious about these negative feelingsDuring early adolescence parental intolerance of negative emotion may heighten parent child conflictThe Child in the Family Bronfenbrenners theory describes additional layers of influence including parents work and socioeconomic status and societal trends such as urbanization changes in family size divorce and remarriage help shape the family environment and this childrens developmentAboriginal parents tend to have a more liberal approach t child rearing than nonaboriginal parents Child is considered own independent person to make decisionsDifferent values depending on cultureFamily Atmosphere Important influence on childs developmentParenting Issues Coregulation and Discipline Control gradually shifts from parent to child Coregulation Transitional stage in the control of behaviour in which parents exercise general supervision and children exercise momenttomoment selfregulation During middle childhood Rely more on consultation and discussion now compared to direct management and supervision before More likely to listen if think parents being fair know better Children whos mothers used guilt producing disciplinary methods but were also highly affectionate tended to develop behaviour problems Mothers communicated inconsistent messages Effects of Parents Work The more the mother is satisfied with her job the better the parent she will be Impact of mothers work outside the home depends on factors like childs age sex temperament personality whether she works full time or part time why she is working if she has a supportive or unsupportive mate or none the familys socioeconomic status and the kind of care the child receives before and or after schoolType of supervision may be more important than the mother being employed especially for boys ones in organized programs with flexible programming and a positive emotional climate tend to adjust better and do better in school9 of schoolaged children and 23 of early adolescents are reported to be in selfcare regularly caring for themselves at home without adult supervision Poverty And Parenting1 out of 6 children live in poverty
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