PSYC 2450 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Twin, Carroll Izard, 18 Months

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Basic emotions: emerge between 2 and 7 months (anger, sadness, joy, surprise, fear: biologically programmed. Complex emotions: in second year (embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy, pride: self-conscience emotions because they cause damage to or enhance sense of self, may require self-recognition and understanding of rules and standards of conduct. Guilt: implies that we have failed to live up to our obligations to other people. Shame: more self-focused and not based on concern for others: causes someone to focus negatively on themselves and may motivate them to hide or avoid people. When mothers were very critical of failures, children displayed high levels of shame after failure and little pride after success. When they reacted positively to success, children displayed more pride in accomplishments and less shame. Emotional display rules: culturally defined rules specifying which emotions should or should not be expressed under which circumstances.

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