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Chapter 10

PSYC 2450 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Revised Version, High-Occupancy Vehicle Lane

Course Code
PSYC 2450
Heidi Bailey

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Chapter 10- Intelligence: Measuring Mental Performance
What Is Intelligence?
There is no singular definition because theorists have different ideas about attributes that
should make up intelligence
The psychometric (or testing) approach defines intelligence as a trait or set of traits that allows
some people to think and to solve problems more effectively than others.
Alfred Binet’s Singular Component Approach
oDeveloped the first successful intelligence test
Originally meant to ID “dull” children in need of remedial instruction
Tasks measured skill they thought were necessary for classroom learning
Organized into Mental Age: intellectual development that reflects the level of age-graded
problems a child is able to solve
Researchers who used factor analysis and had a multicomponent view of intelligence argue
that intelligence is not a singular trait
Therefore mental age alone is not an adequate measure
Factor Analysis: statistical procedure for IDing clusters of tests or test items that are highly
correlated with one another and unrelated to other test items
oEach factor represents a distinct mental ability
Spearman: believed in a general mental ability (g)- affects one’s performance on most
cognitive tasks; along with special abilities (s)-each specific to a particular test.
Thurstone: seven primary mental abilities
oSpatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical reasoning, verbal meaning, word fluency
memory, and inductive reasoning make up Spearman’s idea of “g”
Guilford: structure-of-intellect model proposes that intelligence consists of 180 mental
oFirst classified cognitive tasks into (1) Content- what the person thinks about; 5 options
(2) Operations- what kind of thinking they’re asked to do; 6 different kinds (3) Products-
what kind of answer is required; 6 kinds
Cattel and Horn make a distinction between fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
oFluid: person’s ability to solve novel and abstract problems of the sort that are not taught
and are relatively free of cultural influence
oCrytallized: ability to solve problems that depend on knowledge acquired from
schooling/life experiences
Hierarchical models of intelligence models: a model of the structure of intelligence in which
broad, general ability factor is at the top of the hierarchy, with a number of specialized ability
factors beneath
Carroll's three-stratum theory of intelligence (most elaborate psychometric classifications
of mental abilities to date): “g” at the top with 8 broad abilities at the 2nd level (stratum), and
narrower domains of each 2nd-stratum ability at the 3rd stratum
oShows how people may be very skilled at something, despite having generally below-
average ability (“g”), if that particular 2nd stratum ability is high
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The Modern Information-Processing Viewpoint
Criticism of psychometric models: focus on intellectual content (what someone knows)
rather than process by which knowledge is acquired, retained, and used; don’t measure
common sense, social and interpersonal skills, talents that underlie creative or athletic
Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory: emphasizes the contexts in which intelligent acts are
displayed, the test taker's experience with test items, and the information-processing
strategies for thinking or solving problems
oCONTEXT: Intelligent people are those who can adapt to their environment or shape
the environment to suit them better Real world behaviour
oEXPERIENCE: the way people respond to novel challenges are a good indication of
the person’s ability to generate good ideas; automatization is the increased efficiency
of info processing with practice
Cultural Bias: when one culture or subgroup is more familiar with intelligence test
items than another group, therefore they have an unfair advantage
oINFORMATION-PROCESSING: the way we process information (how fast and
efficiently) is an important aspect of intelligence and should be measured
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences contends that human beings display as many as
nine distinctive kinds of intelligence (linked to different areas of the brain), several of which
are not assessed by traditional intelligence tests
How Is Intelligence Measured?
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: measures general intelligence and four factors-
verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, spatial reasoning, and short-term memory
oMeasures IQ: (intelligence quotient) numerical measure of a person’s performance on
an intelligence test relative to the performance of others
100= average; child’s mental age is equal to chronological age
oRevised version is in use; test norms (standards of normal performance) are now
based on a representative sample
Mental age is no longer used to calculate IQ; now use deviation IQ scores: how
well or poorly a person performs compared with others of the same age
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV): widely used; includes general
intelligence and verbal and performance intelligence
oNot as heavy on language intelligence as the S-B scale
better for ESL children
Distribution of IQ Scores:
oScores are normally distributed (symmetrical, bell-shaped curve) around 100
Group Tests: aka “achievement tests” more easily measure the intelligence/aptitude of a
New approaches to Intelligence Testing include the Kaufman Assessment Battery for
Children (K-ABC): grounded in information-processing theory
oPrimarily measures “fluid” intelligence
oUses dynamic assessment: evaluates how well individuals learn new material when
provided with competent instruction
oInterprets intelligence as the ability to learn quickly with minimal guidance
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