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PSYC 2650 (228)
Dan Meegan (47)


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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Recognition 9/14/2012 12:29:00 PM Recognition Cognitive Neuropsychology:  Documentary on Visual Agnosia  “Stranger in the Mirror” (PBS/Nova, 1993)  video from methods lecture o not cortically blind, just can’t tell you what the object is o compromised ability to visualize in minds eye o monochromats (black and white vision)  also dream, visualize in B&W, cannot visualize what purple is Visual Perception:  If visual information conflicts with information from other sense, we usually trust our vision  Consists of: o Form perception (process which you manage to see basic shape and size of object) o Object recognition (identify what the object is)  Without recognition, cannot bring knowledge to bear on the world  Crucial for learning (combining new and old info, categories)  Gestalt Psychology o Organization must be contributed by the perceiver o Perceptual whole is often different from the sum of its parts o E.g. Necker cube (more than 1 way to perceive it) o E.g. vase vs. face  Neutral in terms of figure / ground organization  Our perception of any form must start with stimulus and must be governed by what is in the stimulus o Features must be in place before an interpretation is offered (features govern interpretation)  Features one finds in an input depend on how the figure is interpreted o It is the interpretation, not the features, that must be first  Solution: parallel processing (brain areas analyze patterns basic features and analyzing pattern’s large scale configuration at same time) o 2 areas constantly interacting  Organizing themes are imposed on stimulus by the perceiver o Determines immediate impressions of stimulus o Plays role in determining if form will be recognized as familiar or not (figure plus the specifications added by the perceiver) Object Recognition:  Recognition of various objects, whether print or otherwise, is influenced in important ways by the context in which the objects are encountered  Features o Recognition might begin with identification of specific parts o Features that we use are ones in our organized perception of the input  E.g. seeing a star but there are no physical lines to make up the star o Features can serve as building blocks (basis for recognizing more complex objects) o People can recognize many variations on objects they encounter (a cat standing, a cat sitting etc.)  Focusing on features allow us to concentrate on what is in common to various cats and allow us to recognize o Features have priority in our perception of the world o Detection of features is separate step in object recognition  Followed by steps which features are organized into a whole  Integrative agnosia: cannot judge how features bound together to form whole Word Recognition:  Factors influencing recognition: o Familiarity  Recognize familiar words over unfamiliar words o How recent you viewed it  First exposure primes participant for second exposure Normal Recognition:  2 stages in cognitive recognition  Both must happen to have cognitive recognition  More errors in cognitive recognition of faces when image is inverted o Orientation system does not operate only on faces o System is crucial when there are 2 characteristics  Recognizing specific individuals within category  Category is an extremely familiar one John from Video:  Could not take parts and put them into wholes  Could access parts of image quite well but could not put them together  Link between parts and whole is cut Larry from Video:  Cannot use information from whole to have an emotional recognition  Auditory system could link cognitive and emotional recognition Theories of Recognition:  How do we recognize familiar visual/auditory stimuli?  Visual Pattern Recognition o Template matching vs. feature analysis Template matching: for any visual pattern, recognition requires a match with stored template  Only reason you can recognize it is because you have seen it before (comparison process)  o Problems with Template Matching:  Failure of a template to match anything but a specific pattern conflict with our remarkable recognition abilities  Size, orientation, font changes are different than our stored template  Mail sorting system (US, automated recognition systems)  Viewpoint dependent (cannot be recognized from all angles)  Recognition is actually faster in some viewpoints than others Feature Analysis: patterns are combinations of elemental features  Need 2 parts plus rule to tell us how the 2 parts are related (difference between T and L)  o Evidence for Feature Analysis:  Neuropsychology  Patients who lose the ability to recognize objects can sometimes describe individual features (John in video)  Seems to be stage of processing that begins by taking wholes, breaking down into individual parts and putting them back into wholes  Evidence that neurons in visual system ar
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