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Episodic Memory.docx

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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Episodic Memory 10/6/2012 9:05:00 AM Episodic Memory Memory Encoding:  Rehearsal promotes memory as long as it is of the right sorts o E.g. primacy effect shows that in some settings lots of rehearsal leads to memory formation  If shear exposure to something creates memory then we should remember everything perfectly o Doesn‟t always happen o See pennies all the time but what way is the „heads‟ side facing? How many leaves are there? o Likewise, having something merely in your thoughts does not commit them to memory  What are the factors that affect whether something becomes stored in LTM? o Maintenance rehearsal (simply focusing on to-be-remembered material with little thought about how they are related)  Repeating them over and over o Elaboration  Thinking about things mean and relating them to things you already know  Better than maintenance rehearsal o Intention  Encoding happens at time of arrival of things to be remembered but benefit of encoding is not apparent at the time of arrival  Encoding allows things to be retrieved later on  Arrival of to be remembered material is not dependent on encoding Elaboration:  Quality (not just quantity) of practice/rehearsal is important for memory encoding  Elaboration involves embellishing a to-be-remembered item with additional information o Instead of just repeating something to yourself, doing something more creative with the information you are trying to remember  Mneumonic strategies (organization improves recall, if organization cannot be found, external organization can be imposed so it is easier to remember)  Can also be down side because more attention focused on 1 or 2 memory connections and less attention to others o New word, never exposed to, commit definition to mind, if word, not in terms of meaning, reminds you of another word, you can use that to embellish memory trace  If you have embellished memory trace, multiple concepts can be activated and result in retrieval of information you want  The more you understand the material, the more likely you will remember it in 5, 10, 20 years Example  Task: remember simple sentences like “The doctor hated the lawyer” o Two study conditions:  Elaborative: generate an elaboration “because of the malpractice suit”  Must be done on their own (effort increases likelihood of retrieval), not taught elaboration  Control: just read and study sentence  No real way to control participants from elaborative coding  Could mask the fact that it is a memory task (don‟t intentionally remember and thus apply embellishment) o Memory test: complete the sentence “The doctor hated ________.” (cued recall test)  Cue is “The doctor hated”  Recall is “the lawyer.”  Vs. free recall test  free to recall things as you wish in whatever order you‟d like o Results  Elaborative: 72% recall  Control: 57% recall  Sealing effects  challenging memory test and longer RI, far from perfect performance in control condition (room for improvement) vs. easy memory test, close to 100% in control condition o Conclusion  Recall of the elaboration might lead to recall of the word when word could otherwise not be recalled  Elaborative and deep processing recall (richness of sentence and semantics) > deep processing recall (semantics alone)  Creation of retrieval paths: can effect, guide your thoughts towards content to be remembered (more paths there are, the more likely you will remember)  If you enter learning situation with large amount of relevant knowledge then that is an advantage over having no framework (nothing to connect the information to) Meaningful Elaboration  Not all elaborations are created equal o Levels of processing effect (done by Canadians from U of T)  Meaningful (deep) processing of to-be-remembered information leads to better memory (than shallow processing) o Deep semantic processing vs. low level processing  Task: read pairs of associated words o Two types of association between the words  Semantic: e.g., tulip-flower (similar in meaning)  Cue  tulip  Recall  flower  Rhymes: e.g., tower-flower (dissimilar in meaning but rhyme with one another)  Cue  tower  Recall  flower  In both cases must recall same word therefore can test effectiveness of cues o Results:  Semantic: 81% recall  Rhymes: 70% recall  Attention really pays off for recall while attention to surface characteristics produces little memory benefit Just Memorize “just memorize” experiments are quite variable because it depends on how the participant self-instructs  If they believe the attention to material aids memory then they will more likely use deep processing techniques when studying and have high recall o The effects of this (recall) is no different than the people in the previous experiment that were told (instructed) to do deep processing  If people believe in other, less than optimal strategies, then they are doing lower processing and will not recall as much as those above o The effects of this is no different than the people that were instructed to do lower level processing Self Reference Effect  Kind, rigid, brace, selfish o Does this word have an “e”? (shallow) o Does this word describe you? (deep) o Can do with or without memory condition o Did you see the word kind vs. are you a kind person 1.000 0.980 0.960 0.940 0.920 Disc.Index 0.900 0.880 0.860 SelfRef E_Word TrialType Intention:  Intuition about intention o Don‟t always need intention to commit something to memory o Tricking participants, don‟t know they are in memory experiment  Subjects saw list of 24 words at 3 words/sec (rapid) o Two task conditions:  Deep: Rate pleasantness of words  Shallow: check for “e” or “g” in words  Must do so quickly o Two learning conditions:  Intentional: were told that they will be given a memory test  Incidental: naïve about memory test, thought they were in a word judgment task (learning in the absence of any intention to learn) o Intention did not matter o Depth of processing did matter (rate pleasantness condition, does not change much between intention and incidental)  Although intention can have a positive effect on memory, the effects are often indirect o What people do when they know they are in a memory situation o E.g. read textbook (group that is in the course and not in the course)  Those who read the textbook and knew they were being tested on it (midterm), do the right things to ensure the encoding and have higher scores on the midterm  Those who read the textbook and were not in the course, lower midterm scores (probably didn‟t take notes or take the time to soak in the meaning)  When there is intention, there is more likely to be elaboration o If we lead people to approach material in same way as someone would with intention, then would get same effects Age on Memory:  Either... o Use homogeneous sample (all young people) o Study effect of age on memory  Young adults  Adults  Older adults Long-Term Memory: Retrieval  Why can‟t I remember stuff?  Is it that the memory has been lost or erased  Or is it “in there: somewhere, but I can‟t retrieve it? Memories are Forgotten, but not Lost  Subjects studied 20 number-noun pairs (e.g., 43-dog) to some criterion (some level of accuracy) o Do not have any natural association that leads to elaborative coding  Two weeks later (RI  according to Ebbinghaus, long RI), a memory test: 43-_____? (cued recall test)  They were able to recall 75% of items. The remaining 25% were used again… (Where there was a failure to retrieve)  Two study conditions (study list once) o Unchanged: “43-dog” o Changed: “43-house”  changed association  2nd Memory test (immediately after study) o Unchanged: 78% recall  Words you have failed to retrieve before does not mean that they a
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