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Chapter 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2650
Professor
Baron
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2 The Neural Basis For Cognition Capgras Syndrome: An Initial Example  The capgras syndrome is when a person is able to recognize the people in her world (her husband) but she believes the real person has been kidnapped and the person in front of her is an imposter o One person killed their husband thinking it was the imposter  This is due to the place in the brain used to detect faces The Neural Basis for Capgras Syndrome  Neuroimaging techniques have been developed in the last few decades and allow researchers to take high-quality, 3-D images of living brains without disturbing the person o MRI, fMRI, PET  In the case of capgras syndrome the amygdala which is important for triggers of safety and danger is damaged, showing why they do not feel safe  They also have damage in the prefrontal cortex which is active when a person is planning or doing a careful analysis o This is diminished and the person sometimes doesn't know the difference between internal events and external What do we Learn From Capgras Syndrome?  The amygdala and prefrontal cortex are both at fault o Don't recognize faces or feel safe The Study of the Brain  The brain is 3-4 pounds and is about the size of a melon o There are 10 million billion connections in the brain  Damage to different parts of the brain result in different outcomes Hindbrain, Midbrain, Forebrain  The hindbrain sits on top of the spinal cord and includes control for life functions o Hear beats, rhythm of breathing, posture, balance, and brains level of alertness o The cerebellum is the largest part of the hindbrain  Involves movement, balance, spatial reasoning, sounds, and input from various sensory systems  The midbrain plays an important part in movement o Eye movement, takes auditory information to be processed in different areas, and other areas help regulate the experience of pain  The forebrain is the largest part of the brain although the cortex is the only outer part showing o The cortex is a thin covering on the outer surface on the forebrain  3mm thick, covers 80% of the brain  The cortex has convolutions or wrinkles in it and if flattened can cover 2 feet o Some of the valleys in the wrinkles are deep grooves that divide the brain in different sections  The deepest groove is the longitudinal fissure that runs from the front of the brain to the back  Separates the left cerebral hemisphere from the right  Other fissures divide the brain into loves  The frontal lobes right behind the forehead  The central fissures divide the frontal lobes from the parietal lobes (the brains topmost part)  The lateral fissure marks the bottom edge of the frontal lobes and below it is the temporal lobes  The occipital lobes is at the back of the brain connected to the parietal and temporal lobes Subcortical Structures  Underneath the cortex in the middle of the brain are the subcortical parts of the forebrain, this includes the o Thalamus which relays all sensory information that goes to the cortex o Hypothalamus underneath the thalamus controls motivated behaviours  Eating, drinking, ECT…  Around the thalamus and hypothalamus is the limbic system o The amygdala and hippocampus are located under the cortex in the temporal lobe  Essential for learning and memory  Amygdala is also responsible for emotional processing Lateralization  There are most of the same structure for the left side of the brain and the right side o Left and right occipital cortex for example  However it does not mean they have the same function  The connection between the left and right brain is possible by commissures = o Thick bundles of fibers that carry information back and forth  The largest is the corpus callosum  There are several other structures that allow the brain to work together  Due to medical reasons people cut the corpus callosum to limit left and right brain connection o Showed us the language is in the left side and a number of tasks such as spatial judgment is on the right  The hemispheres don't work alone, but work together to create a single mental self Data From Neuropsychology  Neuropsychology is studying the different parts of the brain and their function o Cognitive psychology learns about the parts of the brain due to injuries that have happened and they study it  A lesion is a specific area of the brain that has been damaged o The hippocampus if problematic has problems with memory but not language o The hippocampus has problems with language  Different areas of the brain preform different functions Data from Neuroimaging  For many years scientists used computerized axial tomography (CT Scans) t study the brains structure and Positron Emission Tomography to study its activity o CT scans are x rays and PET put glucose in your body and follows it to the areas of your brain  Now we have Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fMRI to show great detailed picture of the brain and to show activity through oxygenated blood cells Data From Electrical Recording  Neurons are activated through neurotransmitters (si
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