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Chapter 13

PSYC 2650 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Deep Structure And Surface Structure, Factor Analysis, Pauperism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2650
Professor
skakoon-sparling
Chapter
13

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Chapter 13
process of inference
how we make judgements based on the information presented and our own store of knowledge
heuristics
-rule of thumb shortcuts to draw conclusions
-often inaccurate and based on selective memory
deductive processes
how we use conclusions or beliefs to reason about possible outcomes
problem solving
process in which one begins with a goal and seeks steps that will lead to that goal
-think of it as a search, navigating a maze
initial state
the knowledge and resources you have at the outset
goal state
the state you are working towards
operators
available tools or actions
path constraints
limits that rule out some operations
problem space
is the set of all states that can be reached in solving a problem, as one moves, by means of operators, from the
initial state towards the goal state
problem-solving protocol
-the written record of thoughts
-protocols often reveal a particular strategy (heuristic) used to solve the problem
hill-climbing strategy
is the heuristic to choose an
option that moves you in the
direction of the goal.
means-end analysis
the problem-solver asks at each step how the current state can be made more similar to the goal state, using
available operators.
-results in breaking the problem into smaller subproblems, each with its own goal (subgoals)
Means-end analysis in reverse
asking how the goal state can be made similar to the current state.
-involves working backward from the goal
perceptual reference frame
mental images can sometimes be limited by this
surface structure
superficial features of a problem
deep structure
underlying logic
well-defined problem
the goal state as well as the available operators are clearly specified.
-Hobbits and Orcs
ill-defined problem,
the goal state and the available operators are not clearly specified.
-end global warming
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