• Memory: clinical amnesia
• got a surgery to help fix epilepsy instead lost his memory
• could not remember anything after the accident, only before
• lost his uncle after the accident, and was grief struck for the first time every time he
was told about the loss of his uncle again
• Betsy and John case tested memory. Without memory we would have to explain
things in much more depth and it would take much longer.
• without memory there is no self
• each conception we have of ourselves is supported by memories
• cognitive psychology: the scientific study of the acquisition, retention, and use of
A brief History
• William Wundt and Edward Titchener launched research psychology and the idea of
introspection as a way of studying the self
• to introspect or “look within” to observe and record the content of our own mental lives
and the sequences of our own experiences.
• concerned with the study of conscious mental events- feelings, thoughts,
perceptions, and recollections.
• cons: no way to get evidence
•some thoughts are unconscious and introspection could not catch these
testability of claims is unattainable
The years of behaviorism
• abandon introspection as a research tool and instead needed objective data (things
that were out in the open, for all to observe)
data concerned with behavior are objective: measurable, recordable, physical events
• you can arrange to record the stimuli and behaviors produced day after day. This
means that you can record how the pattern of behavior changes with time and
accumulation of experiences
• behaviorist movement uncovered a range of principles concerned with how behavior
changes in response to various stimuli.
• by the late 1950s researchers realized a lot could not be explained by the use of only
objective and overt events.
• subjective roles are important too!!!!! so behaviorism will not work
• what they forgot: to predict behavior we need to ask what these stimuli mean to you
The roots of the cognitive revolution
• transcendental model
• you being with the observable facts and then work back from these observations.
You ask, how could these observations have come about? what are the causes to
lead to that effect? • this method is sometimes called “inference to best explanation”
• we know that we need to study mental processes; that’s what we learned from the
limitations of behaviorism. But we also know that mental processes cannot be
observed directly, we learned that from the downfall of introspection. Our pathforward
is to study mental processes indirectly, relying on the fact that theses processes,
though invisible, have visible consequences: measurable delays in producing a
response, performances that can be assessed for accuracy, errors that can be
scrutinized and categories.
• by doing this we can develop hypothesis
The Neural basis for cognition
• Capagras syndrome: This disorder is rare on its own, but it seems to be one of the
accompaniments to Alzheimer’s syndrome and so is sometimes observed among the
elderly and more directly, the disorder can result from various injuries to the brain
• someone with this syndrome is fully able to recognize the people in her world, but
she is utterly conviced that these people are not who they appear to be.
• insist that there are slight differences between the impostor and the person he has
replaced and nobody else notices so this can lead to suspicions
• some have attempted to kill the impostor in an attempt to end the charade and
relocate the “genuine” character
• some researchers assume the fact that facial recognition involves 2 separate
systems in the brain, one of which leads to a cognitive appraisal (“i know what my
father looks like, and I can perceive that you closely resemble him”) and emotional
appraisal (“you look familiar to me and also trigger a warm response in me”)
• in capgras syndrome: the emotional processing is disrupted, leading to the
intellectual identification without the familiarity response. “you resemble my
father but trigger no sense of familiarity, so you must be some else.”
Neural basis for capgras syndrome
neuroimaging techniques: 3 dimensional pictures of living brains
• PET scans, MRI scans
• with capgras
• in temporal lobe, disrupting damage in amygdala , almond shaped structure
(in the intact brain serves as an emotional evaluator and show positive
• With a damaged amygdala, they won’t experience the warm sense of
feeling good when looking at loved ones faces.
• fMRI (for schizo, reveals diminished activity in the frontal loves whenever these
patiences experience hallucinations)
• frontal lobe, prefrontal cortex , active when a person is engaged in a tasks
that require planning, or careful analysis (less active when someone is
dreaming) • absence of careful analysis of the dream material. which in turn helps us
understand why dreams are often illogical or bizarre
• for capgras, patients may be less able to keep track of what is real and
what is not, what is sensible and what is not so weird beliefs can appear,
What do we learn from capgras syndrome?
• Amygdala plays a crucial role in supporting the feeling of familiarity
parts of the brain must work together for simple achievements
The study of the brain
hindbrain: sits directly atop the spinal cord and includes several structures crucial for
controlling key life functions.
rhythm of heartbeat and breathing are regulated
• maintains body’s overall tone, especially body posture and balance and it helps
control the brain’s level of alertness.
• largest area of the hindbrain is the cerebellum which is suggested that it can
coordinate body movements, balance and also plays a diverse set of other roles, and
damage to this organ can cause problems in spatial reasoning, in discriminating
sounds, and in integrating the inputs received.
midbrain: plays an important part in coordinating movements, including skilled, precise
movements of your eyes as you explore the visual world
• it also has circuits that relay auditory information from the ears to the areas in the
forebrain where this information is processed and interpreted
• may help regulate pain
• for cognitive psyc, most interesting part of the brain
• cortex: outer surface layer of forebrain (hides from view midbrain and most of
• tin covering on the outer surface of the forebrain
• cerebral cortex (every organ has a cortex or outer layer)
• constitutes 80% of the human brain
• the cortex is a big sheet so it crumples being fit into a small head. The wrinkles are
called convolutions, and they cover the brain’s outer surface.
• there are valleys between the wrinkles, some of these are deep grooves that divide
the brain into sections
• longitudinal fissures: deepest groove, running from the front of the brain to
the back, which separates the left cerebral hemisphere from the right.
• Other fissures divide the cortex in each Hampshire into four loves and these
are named after the bones the cover them. (skull)
• central fissure: divides the frontal lobes on each side of the brain from the
parietal lobe • frontal lobes: from the front of the brain-right behind the forehead
• lateral fissure: the bottom edge of the frontal lobes is marked by lateral
fissure and below it are the temporal lobes
• parietal lobes: the brain’s topmost part
•occipital lobes: Back of the brain, connected to the parietal and temporal
• subcortical parts of the forebrain
• thalamus: acts as a relay station for nearly all the sensory information going to the
• hypothalamus: located under the thalamus; a structure that plays a crucial role in
controlling motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking and sexual activity.
• Surrounding these is another set of interconnected structures that together form
the limbic system: amygdala, hippocampus.
•both located underneath the cortex in the temporal lobe
•they are essential for learning and memory
emotional events show greater activation in the amygdala, and are remembered better
• There is a left side and a right said of all parts of the brain (they come in pairs)
• they work together, but both do different things.
they are integrated because of commisures, thick bundles of fibers that cary
information back and forth between the two hemispheres.
• the largest commissure is the corpus callosum (ensure the two brain halves work
•problems with these commissures= split brain patient (limited interaction)
•all activities depend on the whole of our brain, not just one side (ex. to be
creative, or mathematical)
Data from Neuropsychology
• neuropsychology:the study of the brain’s structures and how they relate to brain
• clinical neuropsychology: seeks to understand the functioning of intact, undamaged
brains by careful scrutiny of cases involving brain damage
• a lesion ( a specific area of damage) in the hippocampus produces memory
problems but not language disorders, frontal lobe would cause a problem with
• a lesion in the occipital would create problems of vision, they depend on the
hemisphere of damage
Data from neuroimaging
• 3 dimensional picture of brain
computerized axial tomography (ct scan): to study the brain’s struc