Textbook Notes (369,014)
Canada (162,338)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2650 (228)
Baron (12)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

6 Pages
56 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2650
Professor
Baron
Semester
Fall

Description
Cognitive Psyc – Chapter 2 - functioning of the brain as a whole is dependent on interconnected systems - damage anywhere in the brain will result in specific symptoms Capgras syndrome: person is able to recognize the people in their world (ex. Husband, parents, etc.) but is convinced that they are not who they appear to be - thinks they are impostures - thinks their real husband, child, etc. has been kidnapped or worse - PET scans have link Capgras syndrome to multiple brain areas - One site of damage is the temporal lobe on the right side of the head – this involves disrupting the circuits involving the amygdala (the “emotional evaluator, helps detect safety or danger) - Also damage in the prefrontal cortex Neuroimaging techniques: allows researchers to take high-quality, three-dimensional “pictures” of living brains, without in anyway disturbing the brain of the owner PET (positron emission tomography) scans: tell about the structure of the brain, including abnormalities in the brain tissues - provides a precise measurement assessment of how blood is flowing through each region of the brain - therefore also looks at functioning fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging): tracks moment to moment activity levels in different sites of the living brain - allows you to see which parts of the brain are activated during different activities - measures oxygen content in blood flowing through different regions of the brain - oxygen content can determine the level of neural activity in that region MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): tells about the structure of the brain - relies on magnetic tissues of atoms that make up brain tissue - yields very detail pictures of the brain CT (computerized axial tomography) scan: uses x-rays to study the brain’s anatomy - CT and PET scans can be used together to pinpoint signals in the brain - CT provides a map of brain - PET tells us about activity levels and which areas of the brain are active and inactive at different times - results of CT and MRI are fairly stable – only changes if brain structure changes (due to injury, etc.) - results of PET and fMRI are highly variable – results depend on what task the person is performing - two things contribute to face recognition – factual knowledge and an emotional part that is tied to a warm sense of familiarity Principle Structures of the Brain - human brain weighs between 3 and 4 pounds - 10 million billion connections Hindbrain: sits directly atop the spinal cord and includes several structures crucial for controlling key life functions - rhythms of heartbeat, breathing - maintains body’s overall tone, maintains posture and balance - regulates brain’s level of alertness¸ Cerebellum: plays role in coordination of body movements and balance - damage to this area can cause problems in spatial reasoning, in discriminating sounds, and in integrating the input received from various sensory systems Midbrain: plays important part in coordinating our movements, including skilled, precise movements of our eyes - also contains circuits that relay auditory info from the ears to the areas in the forebrain - also helps to regulate experience of pain Forebrain: largest region of the brain - cortex: outer layer of the brain (only 3 mm thick), makes up 80% of the brain, curled up tissue (called convolutions) - longitudinal tissue: deepest groove in the brain, runs from front of brain to the back and separating the left cerebral hemisphere from the right - frontal lobes: forms front of brain -parietal lobes: top of brain - occipital lobes: back of brain Thalamus: brain region that acts as a relay station for nearly all the sensory information going to the cortex Hypothalamus: structure below the thalamus, crucial role in the control of motivated behaviours such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity Limbic System: interconnected structures surrounding the thalamus and the hypothalamus - contains the amygadala and hippocampus, both essential for learning, memory and for emotional processing Commissures: thick bundles of fibres that carry information back and forth between the two hemispheres - largest commissure is the corpus collosum Lesion: specific area of damage Fusiform Face Area (FFA): an area that seems highly responsive to faces and much less responsive the other visual stimuli Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA): a brain sight that seems to respond actively whenever pictures of places are in view Binocular rivalry: the visual system is unable to handle both stimuli at once, or to fuse the stimuli into a single complex perception - results in a flip flop between stimuli BOLD signal: blood oxygenation level dependent - measures how much oxygen the blood’s haemoglobin is carrying in each part of the brain Localization of Function: figuring out which region provides which function Trancranial magnetic stimulation: technique that creates a series of strong magnetic pulses at a specific location on the scalp, causing a temporary disruption in the small brain region directly underneath this scalp area Primary Projection Areas: departure points for signals leaving the forebrain and controlling muscle movements - arrival points: primary sensory projection area Contralateral Control: stimulation in specific part of brain produces specific movements Ex: a current applied to a certain spot results in the movement of your left leg Association Cortex: performs the task of associating simple ideas and sensations in order to form more complex thoughts and behaviours Apraxias: disturbances in the initiation or organization of voluntary action Agnosias: disruptions in a person’s ability to identify familiar objects - usually only affects one modality, so a person who can not recognize an object by looking at it may be able to recognize it by touching it Neglect syndrome: the individual seems to ignore half of the world - usually takes place in the parietal lobe - ex: patient with this syndrome will only shave half of their face, eat only half of what is on their plate Aphasia: damage t
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2650

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit