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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2650
Professor
Baron

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Cognitive Psychology – Chapter 4 – Paying Attention Shadowing: a task in which research participants are required to repeat back a verbal input, word for word, as they hear it Attended channel: in selective attention experiments, research participants are exposed to simultaneous inputs and instructed to ignore all of these except one - the attended channel is the input to which the participants are instructed to pay attention Unattended channel: a stimulus (or group of stimuli) that a person is not trying to perceive - ordinarily, little information is understood or remembered from the unattended channel Dichotic listening: a task in which research participants hear two simultaneous verbal messages – one presented via headphones in the left ear and a second presented to the right hear - in typical experiments, participants are asked to pay attention to one of these inputs (attended channel) and urged to ignore the other - if asked, after a minute or so, to report on what was said on the unattended channel, they cannot - this also occurs with visual tasks – the gorilla experiment – where participants are asked to see how many times the white team passes the ball and fail to notice a person dressed as a gorilla walk through the game - participants seem to be able to remember the unattended channel’s physical content (eg. Voice, musical instrument, silence, male or female voice, etc.) Cocktail party effect: a term used to describe a pattern in which one seems to “tune out” all conversation reaching his or her ear except for the conversation he or she wishes to pay attention to; however, if some salient stimulus (such as the person’s name) appears in one of the other conversations, the person is reasonably likely to detect this stimulus - it is thought undesired information is blocked from being processed by a filter - desired info is not filtered out and so it goes on to be processed - some distracters are easier to ignore than others - we are also able to promote the processing of desired stimuli Inattentional blindness: a pattern which perceives seem literally not to see visual stimuli right in front of their eyes; this pattern is caused by the participants attending to some other stimulus and not expecting the target to appear - attention is needed for conscious perception but you may be unconsciously influenced by patterns in the world even in the absence of attention Change blindness: a pattern in which perceivers either do not see, or take a long time to see, large-scale changes in a visual stimulus - this pattern reveals how little we perceive, even from stimuli in plain view, if we are not specifically attending to the target information - ex: the door experiment and detecting the changes between to pictures Early selection: a proposal that selective attention operates at an early stage of processing, so that the unattended inputs receive little analysis (and so is never perceived) Late selection: a proposal that selective operation operates at a late stage of processing, so that the unattended inputs receive considerable analysis - only the attended stimulus reaches consciousness and it is only the attended input that is remembered - people can prepare themselves for perceiving by priming the suitable detectors - things perceived lots in the past (eg. Your name) are primed so you detect it even if it is in the unattended channel - there are two types of primes: stimulus-based (produced merely by presentation of priming stimulus) and expectation based (created only when the participant believes the prime allows a prediction of what’s to come) - expectation-based priming is larger in magnitude, leading to a greater benefit in response time data - experienced priming takes longer to kick in - stimulus priming is “free” – can prime without taking anything away from other detectors - expectation-based priming does have a cost – priming the wrong detector takes away from the other detectors Limited capacity system: a group of processes in which resources are limited so that extra resources supplied to one process must be balanced by a withdrawal
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