PSYC 2650 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Memory Rehearsal, Frontal Lobe, Mnemonic

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4 Dec 2011
Cognitive Psychology – Chapter 5 – The Acquisition of Working Memories and the
Working Memory System
Acquisition: the process of placing new information into long-term memory
Storage: the state in which a memory, once acquired, remains dormant until it is retrieved
Retrieval: the process of locating information in the memory and activation that
information for use
Information Processing: a particular approach to theorizing in which complex mental
events, such as learning, remembering, and deciding, are understood as being built up out
of a large number of discrete steps
- these steps occur one by one, with each providing as its “output” the input to the
next step in the sequence
Modal Model: a nickname for a specific conception of the “architecture” of memory
- in this model working memory serves both as the storage site for material now
being contemplated and also as the “loading platform” for long-term memory
- information can reach working memory through the process of perception, or it
can be drawn from long-term memory
- once in working memory, material can be further processed, or it can be recycled
for subsequent use
Short-term memory (now called working memory): the storage system in which
information is held while that information is being worked on
- all indications are that working memory is a system, not a single entity, and that
information is held here via active processes, not via some sort of passive storage
Long-term memory: contains all of the information you remember: your memories of
what you did yesterday, how you spent your childhood, a vast number of facts about
various topics, the names and faces of a hundred acquaintances and so on
- retrieval from long-term memory takes time and effort
Primacy effect: an often-observed advantage in remembering the early-presented
materials within a sequence of materials
- occurs because one can focus attention on these items, because at the beginning of
a sequence one is obviously not trying to divide attention between these items and
other items in the series
Recency effect: the tendency to remember materials that occur late in a series
Memory rehearsal: any mental activity that has an effect of maintaining information in
working memory
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