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Chapter 4

PSYC 2650 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Change Blindness, Cocktail Party, Prefrontal Cortex

Course Code
PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

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Chapter 4: Paying Attention
Dichotic listening
Participants wore headphones and heard one input on the left ear and a different
one on the right
Participants were instructed to pay attention to one of these inputs – the attended
Told to ignore input in other ear – unattended channel
Shadowing refers to the participants repeating back to the researcher what they
are hearing, in essence an echo
When doing this and attending to one channel you become completely oblivious
to another and the words they think they heard in the other seem like complete
Was done visually as well
oParticipants asked to pay attention on a group of people wearing white and
black t-shirts and count the number of times they pass a ball between
oThe participant then focuses on the ball and becomes completely oblivious
to the gorilla walking through the frame
Physical attributes for the unattended channel are heard but as for sematic content
they are oblivious
Unattended inputs detected
Names from an unattended channel can catch your attention
Also things such as movie titles you just watched or favorite restaurants will also
catch your attention
Words with some personal importance will sometimes be caught
Cocktail party effect insinuates that say a person is at a busy place such as a bar
and having a conversation with someone. They are oblivious to all other
conversations around them by tuning them out, but as soon as someone next to
you mentions a word with meaningful importance, like a name of a close friend,
you automatically pay attention to them for a moment while tuning out the person
you were originally talking to
Perceiving the limits on cognitive capacity
Filter – this shields you from the unimportant information you don’t want to hear
– potential distractors
oDesired information goes on for further processing
oBlock the processing of distractors
oBut also promote desired stimuli
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