Thursday, February 5, 2015
Chapter 5: Part 2
Entering Long-Term Storage: the need for engagement
-the term rehearsal means little beyond “thinking about”
1. Maintenance Rehearsal: simply focus on what is to be remembered with little about
how they mean or relate to each other. (no long term beneﬁts)
2. Relational Rehearsal: thinking about what needs to be remembered and also
thinking about how it relates to items you already know and new ones.
ex: trying to remember a number while you are going to get your phone
-it never went to long term storage because you relied on maintenance rehearsal.
-the idea is that if you think about something in a mindless matter with no meaning the
item will not be processed into your memory.
-they are not created by repeated exposure either if you are not putting thought into
after you have seen the item.
ex 2: same goes for trying to remember what side the person is facing on the penny.
-we need critical observation and to think about it for us to remember it.
The Need for Active Encoding
-it takes some work to get information into our memory
-this is shown by the fact that maintenance rehearsal seems entirely ineffective at
-speciﬁcally the greater levels of brain activity (hippocampus and prefrontal) were
associated with greater probabilities of retention later on.
-activity is needed to lodge information onto long term memory and higher levels lead
to better memory retention.
ex: word remembered or forgotten depends on their mental activity when they
encountered the word in the ﬁrst place
Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning and Depth of Processing
intentional: learning that is deliberate, expectation that you will be tested on this
information later on
incidental learning: learning in the absence of any intention to learn