Friday, January 16, 2015
Chapter 2: The Neural Basis for Cognition
-accompanies alzheimers and it is generally observed among the elderly.
-the disorder can result from various injuries to the brain
-someone with capgras syndrome is fully capable of to recognize the people in their
world - but they are convinced that these people are not who they appear to be.
-they often insist that there are slight differences between the “impostor” and that
person it has replaced. - no one else can see these non existent differences witch
lead to these people having more paranoia suspicions.
-some murder to get the genuine person back by ending the charade and relocating.
Facial Recognition involves two separate systems of the brain.
1. Cognitive Appraisal: I know what you look like and you resemble
2. Emotional Appraisal: you look familiar and trigger a warm response
*the concordance of these two appraisals leads to the certainty of recognition. in this
syndrome the emotional processing is disrupted which leads to the intellectual
identiﬁcation without having a familiarity response.
The Neural Basis for CAPGRAS Syndrome
-neuroimaging techniques: take high quality 3d pictures of living brains without
disturbance. - they gain the physical makeup of the brain as to how certain structures
are made, placed, what they do ect. while the older studies relied on PET scans.
-One site of damage is the Amygdala (serves as an emotional evaluation, detecting
stimulus that are associated with threat or danger. they are also important for
detecting positive stimuli such as safety or rewards.
-they wont experience these feels of safety and good. THUS, due to having a
damaged amygdala they do not get the right sense of emotional response for the
familiarity of someone they love as they are still seen as a threat!
-these people also have abnormalities in the frontal lobe (prefrontal cortex) - they use
a fMRI (Brain activity while the MRI gives the structure) - the prefrontal cortex is
active for careful planning and analysis and it is less active when dreaming.
for ex: those with schizo show less activity in this area when they experience
hallucinations. it reﬂects a decreased ability to distinguish internal thoughts or imagined
ones from the real ones that you have.
Friday, January 16, 2015
THUS, due to damage to the frontal lobe, those with CAPGRAS syndrome may be less
able to keep track of what is real and what is not and are sensitive to this (impostor)
What do we Learn form this syndrome?
-suggests that recognition of all stimuli involves two separate mechanisms
1. one that hinges on factual knowledge
2. one that hinges on emotional and more “familiarity”
-speciﬁcally the damage to the amygdala is probably the reason why they experience
no sense of familiarity when they look at faces they know well.
-the damage to the prefrontal cortex helps us understand when they experience this
lack of familiarity
-it helps with broader issues of how the mind and the brain have a nature - amygdala
also plays a role for helping people remember emotional events in their lives and
decision making that revolves mostly around their emotions to the situation.
-“emotional evaluation” points to a different direction than the “facts evaluation”
Ex: Recognizing your father.
-one part of your brain needs to store the factual memory of what he looks like
-another part is responsible for analyzing the visual input you receive when looking at
-another part analyzes the visual input and the factual information to see if theres a
-another part determines the emotional evaluation
-another site registers all of these together to get the proper response.
Data from Neropsychology
-the study of a brain that has suffered damage and how the brains structures relate to
the brains function.
-clinical neurology: seeks to understand the function of intact, undamaged brains by
looking carefully at cases involving brain damage.
-A lesion (a speciﬁc area of damage) ex: hippocampus; memory problems but not
language, occipital cortex has vision problems but not or sensory.
*it also depends on which hemisphere is damaged - left: verbal and right: vision.
*right side controls your left, while your left side controls your right
*ex: your Cerebral Palsy