2650 Chapter 3: PSYCH 2650 CHAPTER 3
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Sunday, January 18, 2015
Chapter 3: Recognizing Objects
-our dominant sense as humans is vision. It reﬂects our behaviour and if vision
conﬂicts with information received from other senses, we usually place trust in vision.
-form perception: the process through which you manage to see the basic shape and
size of an object.
-object recognition: the process through which you identify what the object is.
Why is Object Recognition Crucial?
-it is essential whenever you want to apply your knowledge to the world, our
interactions and it is crucial for learning.
Beyond the Information given
-gestalt psychologists noted that our perception of the visual world is organized in
ways that the stimulus input is not, hence, the organization must be contributed by
the one who is perceiving.
ex: the Necker Cube or reversible ﬁgures (different ways of perceiving the objects)
-these reversible ﬁgures is neutral in regards to perceptual organization. It is also
neutral with the fact of ﬁgure/ground organization - the determination of what is the
-however, your perception of this ﬁgure is not neutral, instead it is our perception that
somehow speciﬁes what you are looking at.
The Gestalt Principles
-with reversible ﬁgures, the perceivers role is obvious.
-the geometry of the ﬁgure is always the same no matter how you perceive it. Thus, it
is the change that is caused by you, - the change in how you’re organizing/
interpreting the stimulus - and shaping the perception.
-many stimuli are ambiguous and do need interpretation but sometimes it is done so
quickly that we do not even notice it.
ex: Bowl of Fruit (what is behind the banana, the same fruit or not)
-our perception goes beyond the information given, and is in part of in the eye of the
-your interpretation is deﬁnitely not careless, we are guided by a few strait forward
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Sunday, January 18, 2015
1. Proximity and similarity - they look the same and are close together
2. Good continuation - see something that is continuous and not split
3. Closure - tend to perceive things that are closed off and not incomplete (bias)
4. Simplicity - interpret forms in the simplest way possible to avoid coincidences (it just
happens to be that way)
* because we are guided all by the same principles it is normal that we generate the
Organization and “Features”
-seems plausible that perception proceeds in two broad steps: collect the information -
> interpret the information.
-however, this view is wrong, our interpretation of the input sometimes seems to
happen before we start cataloguing the inputs basic features, not after.
-the “features” themselves depend on how the form is organized by the viewer and so
the features are as much in the eye of the beholder as well as in the ﬁgure itself.
(ﬁgure 3.6 - 3.7)
-we can easily provide missing features. Thus, on one hand your perception of a form
surely has to start with the stimulus itself and then in some ways must be govern by
what’s in that stimulus.
*suggesting that the features must be in place before an interpretation is offered,
because the features take over the interpretation. BUT it also suggests that the
features you ﬁnd in a input depend on how the ﬁgure is interpreted. “interpretation ﬁrst
then the features”
-many aspects of the brains functioning depend on parallel processing, they work at
the same time and all inﬂuence each other. Hence, the brain areas that analyze a
patterns basic features do their work at the same time brain areas analyzing the
pattern as it’s large scale. * neither of them goes ﬁrst or has priority over the other.
-they work together, with the result that the perception achieved matches at the large
scale and ﬁne grain levels.
Recognition: Some Early Considerations
-we are able to recognize a huge number of different patterns, various actions, sorts of
situations and variation of these things as well.
-you recognize objects even when the information is partial - this goes for print as well.
-your recognition of various objects, whether print of not is inﬂuenced by important
ways by the context of which the objects are encountered.
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