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Chapter 3

Cognitive Psychology Chapter 3.docx

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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Chapter 3: Recognizing Objects in the World 9/19/2012 12:21:00 PM Visual Perception - form perception is the process through which you manage to see what the basic shape and size of an object are - object recognition is the process through which you identify what the object is - the Necker cube is a drawing that is called an ambiguous figure because there is more than one way to perceive it—it can be seen as a cub viewed from above (A) or seen as a cube viewed from below (B) - figure/ground organization is the determination of what is the figure (central object) and what is the background - parsing is when parts are perceived as going together and which are perceived as separate - crucial organizing themes must be imposed on the stimulus by the perceiver so that the organization is in the eye of the beholder and not in the stimulus itself Object Recognition o recognition might begin with the identification of features in the input pattern—feawtures like vertical lines, curves or diagonals o we have a memory for each feature o studies of individuals which damage to the parietal cortex appear normal in tasks that require them simply to detect whether particular features are present or absent from a display but they are impaired from tasks that require them to judge how the features are bound together to form complex objects o evidence comes from a study in which transcrainial magnetic stimulation was used to disrupt portions of the brain in healthy individuals—the disruption of the parietal lobe had no impact on performance when participants were searching for a display for targets defined by a single feature but performance delayed when participants were searching for a target defined by a conjunction of features o clearly, the detection of features is separate from the processes needed to put features together, to form more complex wholes Word Recognition o ceiling levels mark an easy test, which makes it unsensitive—unable to discriminate good spellers from poor ones o a tachistoscope is a device that allows presentation of stimuli for precisely controlled amounts of time, including brief presentations o a mask serves to interrupt continued processing that participants might try to do for the stimulus just presented, and this allows researchers to be sure that stimulus is only visible for the amount of time it is presented o frequency of words being presented in every day life increases likelihood that they will be remembered during tests o first exposure to a word primes the participant for the second exposure—repetition priming o the word superiority effect is when words frequently viewed are easier to perceive as compared to isolated letters—usually demonstrated by two-alternative, forced-choice procedure where you might tachistoscopically present a single letter, followed by a mask and follow that with a question asking which letter was presented—recognizing words is easier than recognizing isolated letters o you are more likely to misread a non-word as a word than a word as a non-word and more likely to recognize letters from fake words than just jumbled letters o people perceive the input as being more regular than it actually is and therefore errors are referred to as over-regularization errors, suggesting that our recognition is guided by some knowledge of spelling patterns Feature Nets and Word Recognition o a network of detect
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