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Chapter 4

Cognitive Psychology Chapter 4.docx

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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Chapter 4: Paying Attention 10/2/2012 7:32:00 AM - selective attention is the process through which you somehow select one input and tune out the rest - divided attention is when and if you can do multiple tasks at once Selective Listening - the task called shadowing is when participants hear a tape recording of someone speaking and must echo this speech back, while they are listening to it - initially quite difficult, but becomes easy after a few minutes practice - the message to be shadowed, the attended channel, is presented through stereo headphones so that participants hear is through one of the ears - a different message, the unattended channel is presented through the other ear and participants are instructed to ignore this message - the overall setup of this experiment is called dichotic listening - participants easily follow one message and their shadowing performance is nearly perfect but they have no idea what the unattended message was about - sometimes, unattended input leaks through—about a third of participants will hear their name in an unattended channel or something else that catches attention—this is the cocktail party effect Perceiving and the Limits on Cognitive Capacity - one proposal for perceiving cognitive capacity is that we erect a filter that shields us from potential distractors and desired info is not filtered out and goes on to receive further processing - we not only block the processing of distractors but also promote the processing of desired stimuli - fixation targets are used for experiments - failure to see objects that are directly infront of you is inattentional blindness—you don’t see things you aren’t looking for - change blindness refers to observers remarkable inability to detect changes in scenes they are looking at—perception of the visual world is far from automatic, putting a stimulus in front of your eyes provides no guarantee that you will detect and respond to that stimulus - to detect the types of priming, response times are measured—by comparing response times in neutral and primed conditions and comparing response times in the misled and neutral conditions we can see what is the benefit of priming and the cost of misleading - warning signals are an excellent predictor of the upcoming stimuli and provided a high validity prime and likewise it was a poor predictor of the misled prime, therefore a low validity condition - we expect faster response times in the primed condition than in the neutral because the detectors should be warmed up from the warning signal leading to a faster response—30 millisecond difference usually - in
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