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Psychology (3,256)
PSYC 2740 (173)
Chapter 2

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 2 1/18/2013 9:04:00 AM Sources of Personality Data - Self report data is the information a person reveals obtained through interviews, reports, and questionnaires - Unstructured and structured - The 20 statements test is when a participant receives a sheet of paper that is blank except for the words 1 am repeated 20 times and then they are asked to complete them - Simplest form of structured self report questionnaires involve trait descriptive adjectives like active, ambitious, anxious, arrogant, artistic, generous, gregarious, greedy, good natured, etc presented through a checklist in which participants indicate whether the trait describes them - Likert rating scale involves a simple way for a person to express with numbers the degree to which a particular trait describes them - A personality scale consists of summing the scores on a series of individual rating scores; for example a personality scale for activity level would sum scores for energetic, active and vigorous - Self report inventories include the NEO personality inventory, the California psychological inventory - Experience sampling is when people answer questions every day for several weeks or longer; findings included a weekly cycle in the moods of college students, with positive moods peaking on Friday and Saturday and negative moods peaking on Tuesday and Wednesday with introverts - being more regular in this cycle than extroverts - Observer report data involves obtaining information about impressions a person makes on others, their social reputation, etc; multiple observers can be used to assess each individual whereas in self-report only one person provides the info - Inter-rater reliability is high for this means of data gathering - Multiple social personalities can be assessed through intimate observer report data - In naturalistic observation, observers witness and record events that occur in the normal course of the lives of their participants - The way in which a couple conducts an argument can predict the likelihood that the couple will remain together or get divorced as found through the research of gottman and levenson; even facial expressions displayed predict marital outcomes - Decisions about whether to use professional assessors or intimate observers and a naturalistic or an artificial settings for observation must be made on the basis of the specific purposes of the personality study - Test data (t-data) is when participants are placed in standardized testing situations ; the idea is to see if different people react differently to an identical situation - It is possible to set up conditions to reveal key indicators of personality and laboratory experimenters should be sensitive to manifestation of personality that occur in incidental parts of the experiment, and there are often interesting linksk between S data obtained thorugh questionnaires and T data obtained through controlled testing conditions - Personality data in some acses can be assessed through mechanical recording devices, like the actometer; these forms of t data include advantages such as providing a mechanical means of assessing personality, and ability to be obtained through naturalistic settings; disadvantages include few personality dispositions being readily avai
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