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Chapter 10

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 10 The Neo-Analytic Movement - contemporary psychoanalysis is based on the follow postulates: - the unconscious still plays a large role in life, although it may not be the ubiquitous influence that Freud held it was - behaviour often reflects compromises in conflicts between mental processes, like emotions, motivations and thoughts - childhood plays an important part in personality development, particularly in terms of shaping adult relationship styles - mental representations of the self and relationships guide our interactions with others - personality development involves not just regulating sxual and aggressive feelings but also moving from an immature, socially dependent way of relating to others to a mature, independent relationship style - we should not conclude that all recovered memories are false memories, just become some have turned out apparently to be false - hypnosis is a technique used to get patients to recall freely childhoof experiences within the protection of a relaxed state; evidence shows that hypnosis does not infact improve memory - hypnosis may be associated with increased distortion in memory; in hypnosis people are more imaginative, more spontaneous and more emotional and usually report unusual bodily sensations - in the creation of false memories, hypnosis, suggestive interviewing and the interpretation of symptoms as signs of past trauma, pressure from an authority figure to recall trauma and dream interpretation are used - the imagination inflation effect occurs when a memory is elaborated upon through imagination, leading the person to confuse the imagined event with events that actually happened - therapists can suffer from a confirmatory bias; the tendency to look only for evidence that confirms their previous hunch and to not look for evidence that might disconfirm their belief - in 2006, there was approximately 905,000 child victims of maltreatment in the US, of these, 64% were for neglect, 16% involved physical abuse and 9% were sexual abuse cases, and approx. 9% involved psychological abuse and medical neglect - in this reporting year, an estimated 1530 children died of abuse and neglect, 78% being under the age of 4 - the two differing views on the unconscious are the cognitive unconscious view and the motivated unconscious view - those with the cognitive unconscious view readily acknowledge that information can get into our memories without our ever being aware of the information - the phenomenon of subliminal perception can prime associated material in memory without ones awareness - priming makes that associated material more accessible to conscious awareness than is material that is not primed; results such as these using subliminal primes clearly demonstrate that info can get into the mind and have some influence, without going through conscious experience Ego Psychology - we could characterize Freudian psychoanalysis as id psychology - Erik Erikson emphasized the ego as a powerful, independent part of personality; he noted that the ego was involved in mastering the environment, achieving ones goals and establishing ones identity (ego psychology) - The term identity crisis comes from Eriksons work and refers to the desperation and confusion a person feels when they have not developed a strong sense of identity - Eriksons 8 stages of development: - Freud believed our crises were sexual but Erikson believed they were of a social nature; the persons with whom we have our first social relationships are our parents and our crises would be learning to trust our parents, learning to be autonomous from them and learning from them how to act as an adult (psychosocial conflicts rather than psychosexual conflicts) - Erikson kept a stage model of development, implying that people go thorugh the stages in a certain order and that there is a specific issue that characterizes each stage and he believed that each stage represented a developmental crisis that needed to be resolved; he also maintained the notion of fixation - In infancy, the conflict is trust vs. mistrust; the sense of trust they develop forms the basis of future relationships - Around the second year, children can develop the good outcome of a sense of control and mastery over things and self confidence and autonomy and the poor outcome being inhibiting such autonomy by being strict, restrictive, or punishing independence in which situation the child might start to feel shame and doubt over the goals they are contemplating (autonomy vs shame and doubt) - Around 3 years of age children imitate adults and practice skills and take initiative during school activities to accomplish goals; if they have a positive outcome they develop a sense of initiative, ambition and goal seeking but a negative outcome results in failure or guilt (initiative vs guilt) - Around age 4(and in elementary school), children compare themselves to others and may retain a sense of industry which is the feeling that if they work hard they can achieve what they want or under failure, they might develop a sense of inferiority (industry vs inferiority) - During adolescence there is identity vs. role confusion; most people pass through a period of identity confusion, which refers to not having a strong sense of who one really is; some cultures institute a rite of passage ritual; in resolving the identity crisis, some persons develop a negative identity - If a person does not have a crisis, or they form an identity without exploring alternatives
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