PSYC 2740 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Functional Response, Unconditional Positive Regard, Thematic Apperception Test

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Chapter 11
Basic Concepts
- motives are internal states that arouse and direct behaviour toward specific
objects or goals; a motive is often caused by a deficit, a lack of something
- motives are based on needs, states of tension within a person
- motive psychologists stress that people differ from one another in the type
and strength of their motives, that these differences are measurable, that
these difference cause or are associated with important life outcomes, that
these differences between people in the relative amounts of various motives
are stable over time and that motives may provide one answer to the
question ‘why do people do what they do’
- Murray believed that each person had a unique hierarchy of needs; an
individuals various needs can be thought of as existing at different levels of
strengtheach need interacts with the various other needs within each
person and this interaction is what makes the concept of motive dynamic
- Dynamic refers to the mutual influence of forces within a person
- Press refers to need-relevant aspects of the environment; a persons need for
affiliation wont affect that persons behaviour without an appropriate
environmental press
- There is a so-called real environment (alpha press) and a perceived
environment (beta press)
- The act of interpreting the environment and perceiving the meaning of what
is going on in a situation is term apperception; because our needs and
motives influence apperception, if we want to know about a persons primary
motives, we might ask that individual to interpret what is going on in a
variety of situations
- The thematic apperception test consist sof a set of black and white images
which are ambigious and then the person is asked to make up a story about
what is happening in the picture
- The essential features of the TAT and similar projective techniques are that
the subject is given an ambiguous stimulus and they are asked to describe
and interpret what is going on
- State levels of need refer to a persons momentary amount of a specific need,
which can fluctuate with specific circumstances
- The assessment of trait levels of a need refer to measuring a persons average
tendency, or their set point, on the specific traitthe idea is that people
differ from each other in their typical or average amount of specific needs
- The Multi-Motive Grid combines features of the TAT with features of self-
report questionnaires14 pictures are selected to arouse one of the big
three motives (achievement, power or intimacy) and the idea is that the
photo will arouse the motive, which then will influence how the person will
answer the questions
- The TAT remains a popular personality assessment technique today, even
though some researchers argue that it how low test-retest reliability
The Big Three Motives: Achievement, Power and Intimacy
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Document Summary

Motives are internal states that arouse and direct behaviour toward specific objects or goals; a motive is often caused by a deficit, a lack of something. Motives are based on needs, states of tension within a person. Dynamic refers to the mutual influence of forces within a person. Press refers to need-relevant aspects of the environment; a persons need for affiliation wont affect that persons behaviour without an appropriate environmental press. There is a so-called real environment (alpha press) and a perceived environment (beta press) The thematic apperception test consist sof a set of black and white images which are ambigious and then the person is asked to make up a story about what is happening in the picture. The essential features of the tat and similar projective techniques are that the subject is given an ambiguous stimulus and they are asked to describe and interpret what is going on.

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