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PSYC 2740 (174)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2740
Professor
Stephen Lewis
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 10 – Psychoanalytic Approaches: Contemporary Issues Neo-Analytical Movement  Psychoanalysis inspired by Freud but modified and advanced  Focus on childhood relationships and adult conflicts with others, such as difficulties becoming intimate or becoming intimate with the wrong kinds of people  Contemporary psychoanalysis based on five postulates (Westen) 1. Unconscious still plays a large role in life 2. Behavior often reflects compromises in conflicts between mental processes, such as emotions, motivations and thoughts 3. Childhood plays an important part in personality development, particularly in shaping adult relationship styles 4. Mental representations of the self and relationships guide our interactions with others 5. Personality development involves not just regulating sexual and aggressive feelings but also moving from an immature, socially dependent way of relating to others to a mature, independent relationship style Repression and Contemporary Research on Memory  Should not include all recovered memories as false memories  Should not assume all recovered memories are true  Factors that might influence people to have false memories - Popular press ex. books that might list symptoms of sexual abuse, the symptoms are general feelings (low self-esteem, depression etc.) - Behavior of some therapists – techniques used for patients to reflect on their childhoods – hypnosis, suggestive interviewing, interpretations of symptoms as signs of past trauma, pressure from authority figure to recall past trauma and dream interpretation  Imagination inflation effect – a memory is elaborated upon in the imagination, leading person to confuse the imagined event with events that actually happened  Therapists believe effective treatment must result in patient overcoming repressed memories and reclaiming a traumatic past  Confirmatory bias – tendency to look only for evidence that confirms their previous hunch and to not look for evidence that might disconfirm their belief  In 2006 approx. 905,000 child victims of maltreatment in USA – have to know facts about child abuse because sometimes aren’t false memories Contemporary Views on the Unconscious  Cognitive unconscious view - Information can get into our memories without our ever being aware of the information - Subliminal perception - perception that bypasses conscious awareness, usually achieved through very brief exposure times, typically less than 30 milliseconds - Priming – technique to make associated material more accessible to conscious awareness than material that is not primed. Research using subliminal primes demonstrated that information can get into the mind, and have some influence on it, without going through conscious experience - Research shows that unconscious information does not influence people’s motivations - Thoughts are unconscious because they are not in conscious awareness, not because they have been repressed or because they represent unacceptable urges or wishes  Motivated unconscious view - Although unconscious material can influence subsequent thoughts or behavior, these influences are not consistent with the motivated unconscious of classical psychoanalytical Ego Psychology  Freud used to look at Id Psychology – psychoanalysts later though ego needed more attention  Erik Erikson – ego was powerful, independent part of personality, involved in mastering the environment, achieving one’s goals, and establishing ones identity  Identity crisis –desperation and confusion a person feels when he/she has not developed a strong sense of identity (common among adolescence)  Identity (Erikson) – a story that a person develops about themselves that answers the questions: who am I? What is my place in the adult world? What are the unifying themes of my life? What is the purpose of my existence? Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development  Thought the important periods of development happened over life span  Thought crises were of social nature not inherently sexual like Freud believed  Psychosocial conflicts – occur throughout a person’s lifetime and contribute to the ongoing development of personality. Defined as the crises of learning to trust our parents, learning to be autonomous from them and learning how to act as an adult  Stage model of development – people go through stages in a certain order and there is a specific issue that characterises each stage  Each stage in personality development represented a conflict or developmental crisis, that needed to be resolved before person advanced to the next stage of development 1. Trust versus mistrust - When children are born - Sense of trust forms basis for future relationships, children with trust grow up believing other people are approachable, trustable and generally good and loving - Infants who are not well taken care of and never receive the love and care they need develop mistrust, suspicion , isolation, social discomfort when around others 2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt - Around 2 years old - Children try to figure out how much control they have - Good outcome – child feels sense of control, develops self-confidence (walking etc.) and sense of autonomy that lets them learn and explore - Strict, restrictive parents, who don’t let child be independent may cause child to feel shame/doubt over their goals 3. Initiative versus guilt - Around 3 years old - First practice in adult tasks, ex. imitate adults, dress up like adults etc. - When they play they practice skills by organizing games, picking leaders, forming goals – if goes well children should develop initiative which translates to ambition and goal seeking 4. Industry versus inferiority - Around age 4 - Children begin comparing themselves to others especially those their age, many develop sense of competence and achievement - Sense of industry –feeling like they can work to achieve what they want - sets children on way of being productive members of society - Enough failure experiences = feeling of inferiority 5. Identity versus role confusion - Adolescence - Identity achievement one of most important goals of development - Many people do a lot of experimentation in this stage - Eventually people make decisions about what is important, and what they value or want out of life – acquire sense of “who they are” - People who fail at this stage develop role confusion, and enter adulthood without a solid sense of who they are or what they think the meaning of their life is - Some cultures have rite of passage rituals - In resolving identity crisis some people develop a negative identity – an identity founded on undesirable social roles like a street gang member - Most young people are very impressionable at this time – looking for role models - Identity has to be achieved - Identity foreclosure – person does not emerge from crisis with a firm sense of commitment to values, relationships or career but forms an identity without exploring alternatives ex. kids who accept values of their parents or religious groups without question - Moratorium – taking time to explore options before making a commitment to an identity 6. Intimacy versus isolation - Connecting with others – friendship and intimate relationships – latter half of teen y
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