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Chapter 10

PSYC 2740 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Subliminal Stimuli, John Bowlby, Dream Interpretation

Course Code
PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

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Chapter 10 Psychoanalytic Approaches: Contemporary Issues
Neo-Analytical Movement
Psychoanalysis inspired by Freud but modified and advanced
Focus on childhood relationships and adult conflicts with others, such as difficulties becoming
intimate or becoming intimate with the wrong kinds of people
Contemporary psychoanalysis based on five postulates (Westen)
1. Unconscious still plays a large role in life
2. Behavior often reflects compromises in conflicts between mental processes, such as
emotions, motivations and thoughts
3. Childhood plays an important part in personality development, particularly in shaping adult
relationship styles
4. Mental representations of the self and relationships guide our interactions with others
5. Personality development involves not just regulating sexual and aggressive feelings but also
moving from an immature, socially dependent way of relating to others to a mature,
independent relationship style
Repression and Contemporary Research on Memory
Should not include all recovered memories as false memories
Should not assume all recovered memories are true
Factors that might influence people to have false memories
- Popular press ex. books that might list symptoms of sexual abuse, the symptoms are general
feelings (low self-esteem, depression etc.)
- Behavior of some therapists techniques used for patients to reflect on their childhoods
hypnosis, suggestive interviewing, interpretations of symptoms as signs of past trauma,
pressure from authority figure to recall past trauma and dream interpretation
Imagination inflation effect a memory is elaborated upon in the imagination, leading person to
confuse the imagined event with events that actually happened
Therapists believe effective treatment must result in patient overcoming repressed memories
and reclaiming a traumatic past
Confirmatory bias tendency to look only for evidence that confirms their previous hunch and
to not look for evidence that might disconfirm their belief
In 2006 approx. 905,000 child victims of maltreatment in USA have to know facts about child
abuse because sometimes aren’t false memories
Contemporary Views on the Unconscious
Cognitive unconscious view
- Information can get into our memories without our ever being aware of the information
- Subliminal perception - perception that bypasses conscious awareness, usually achieved
through very brief exposure times, typically less than 30 milliseconds

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- Priming technique to make associated material more accessible to conscious awareness
than material that is not primed. Research using subliminal primes demonstrated that
information can get into the mind, and have some influence on it, without going through
conscious experience
- Research shows that unconscious information does not influence people’s motivations
- Thoughts are unconscious because they are not in conscious awareness, not because they
have been repressed or because they represent unacceptable urges or wishes
Motivated unconscious view
- Although unconscious material can influence subsequent thoughts or behavior, these
influences are not consistent with the motivated unconscious of classical psychoanalytical
Ego Psychology
Freud used to look at Id Psychology psychoanalysts later though ego needed more attention
Erik Erikson ego was powerful, independent part of personality, involved in mastering the
environment, achieving one’s goals, and establishing ones identity
Identity crisis desperation and confusion a person feels when he/she has not developed a
strong sense of identity (common among adolescence)
Identity (Erikson) a story that a person develops about themselves that answers the questions:
who am I? What is my place in the adult world? What are the unifying themes of my life? What
is the purpose of my existence?
Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development
Thought the important periods of development happened over life span
Thought crises were of social nature not inherently sexual like Freud believed
Psychosocial conflicts occur throughout a person’s lifetime and contribute to the ongoing
development of personality. Defined as the crises of learning to trust our parents, learning to be
autonomous from them and learning how to act as an adult
Stage model of development people go through stages in a certain order and there is a specific
issue that characterises each stage
Each stage in personality development represented a conflict or developmental crisis, that
needed to be resolved before person advanced to the next stage of development
1. Trust versus mistrust
- When children are born
- Sense of trust forms basis for future relationships, children with trust grow up believing
other people are approachable, trustable and generally good and loving
- Infants who are not well taken care of and never receive the love and care they need
develop mistrust, suspicion , isolation, social discomfort when around others
2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
- Around 2 years old
- Children try to figure out how much control they have
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