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Chapter 17

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 16 Sex, Gender, and Personality  sex differences: average differences between women and men in personality or behaviour The science and politics of studying sex and gender History of the study of sex differences  prior to 73, little attention paid to differences  book psychology of sex differences concluded the differences were small and few in number Calculation of effect size  d is quite small for verbal ability better for women and men better at math  d is almost large for spatial ability in males Minimalists and maximalists  those who describe sex differences as small and inconsequential are minimalists  talk about the tremendous overlap  maximalists: magnitude of sex differences is comparable to the magnitude of many other effects in psychology and should not be trivialized Sex differences in personality Temperament in children  Inhibitory control - showed the largest sex difference - with a d -.41 - moderate range  girls better at regulating or allocating their attention  perceptual sensitivity - sex difference favouring girls . -.38 - moderate  surgency: - cluster including approach behaviour, high activity, and impulsivity, - showed a sex difference of .38 - moderate  boys more physically aggressive than girls .60  negative activity - anger, difficulty, amount of distress - boys and girls were even Five Factor model Extraversion  women scored slightly higher on gregariousness - small diff  men scored slightly higher on activity level - small diff  men score moderately higher on assertiveness  extraversion - men .15 small Agreeableness  study of 50 cultures revealed a small to medium gender difference d = -.32 - women higher than men  Trust - women score more trusting than men  tender-mindedness - women are substantially more tendered minded than men -.97 - large  women smile -.60 more Aggressiveness  men are more physically aggressive than women - TAT tests - .86 large effect sizes  peer report - medium .67  self report - .40  men fantasy more aggression against others at large rate - .84 Conscientiousness  women small difference - -.14 on conscientiousness  women have small effect size for order -.13 emotional stability  women are lower than men on this dimension -.49 moderate level Intellect-openness to experience  no sex differences Basic emotions: frequency and intensity  women experience both positive and negative motions more frequently and intensely than men Other dimensions of personality Self Esteem  global self esteem - defined as the global regard that one has for the self as a person  those with high self esteem cope better with stress  overall effect size is small - 0.21 - males scoring slightly higher  females dropped self esteem when they hit their mid teens - .33 Sexuality and mating  men are much more desiring casual sex - .81 large  men can't be friends with women - always develop sexual feelings People things dimension  the nature of vocational interests  relate to o
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