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Chapter 18

Chapter 18.docx

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

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Chapter 18 Stress, coping, adjustment, and health  health psychology - study the relationship between the mind and the body - as well as the way in which these two components respond to the challenges from the environment Models of the personality- illness connection  stress - the subjective feeling produced by events that are uncontrollable or threatening - stress refers to how people respond to a situation  interactional model - suggests that objective events happen to people, but personality factors determine the impact of those events by influencing peoples ability to cope  how people cope is influenced by their personality  transactional model - personality has three potential effects:  1. it can influence coping, ( as in interactional model)  2. it can influence how the person appraises or interprets events  3. it can influence the events themselves  the interpretation of events is how someone understands the situation they are in - being stuck in traffic as stressful or relaxing  third point refers to how people make choices to put themselves into situations - people also influence events  third model - health behaviour model - adds another factor to the transactional model  personality does not directly influence the relationship between stress and illness , instead, in this model, personality affects health indirectly through health promoting or health degrading behaviours  this model maintains that personality influences the degrees in which people take part in these behaviours  fourth model - predisposition model - completely different than the previous  personality and illness are both expressions of an underlying predisposition - suggests that something is causing both personality and illness  genetic underlying cause for sensation seeking - which leads people to be more experimental and eventually addicted to drugs  the final model - illness behaviour model - illness behaviour is referred to the actions people take when they think they have an illness - going to the doctor, taking the day off, complaining  people do these behaviours when they truly don't have illnesses, but some don't do them when they do have illnesses  personality influences the degree to which a person perceives and pays attention to bodily sensations and the degree to which the person interprets and labels those sensations as an illness  these models are not mutually exclusive The concept of Stress  stressors - events that cause stress  common attributes  1. stressors are extreme, in the sense that they produce a state of feeling overwhelmed or overloaded, that one just cannot take it much longer  2. Stressors often produce opposing tendencies such as wanting and not wanting an activity or object - as in wanting to study put also wanting to put it off as long as possible  3. stressors are uncontrollable - outside our power of influence Stress response  general adaptation syndrome (GAS)  when stress begins then occurs for a long period of time  1st stage - alarm stage - consists of the fight or flight response of the sympathetic nervous system and the associated peripheral nervous system reactions - hormones that prepare the body for battle  2nd - resistance stage - the body continues to use its resources at an above average rate. even though the immediate fight or flight response has subsided  3rd - exhaustion stage - person most susceptible to disease, psychological resources are depleted Major life events  events that require people to make major adjustments in their lives  major stressing events - death of family - divorce - jail - injury or illness  can make you more susceptible to colds Daily hassles  the main stressors that people receive daily  can become chronic  not the same reaction as major life
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